Colon cancer occurs when the cells lining the colon or rectum become abnormal and grow out of control. Colon cancer can develop with mutations to polyps in the intestine, and some colorectal cancers may show no symptoms. For this reason, regular colorectal cancer screening is important to detect problems early and start treatment. Memorial Health Group Medstar Antalya Hospital General Surgery Department Prof. Dr. Ismail Gomselli explains what to know about colon cancer.
Cancer develops as a result of uncontrolled proliferation of cells
All cells in the body normally grow, divide and then die to keep the body healthy and functioning properly. Sometimes this process gets out of control. Colorectal cancer can develop as a result of the uncontrolled proliferation of cells lining the colon and rectum. Cancer that begins in the large intestine is called the colon, and cancer that develops from the large intestine about 15 centimeters near the anus is called rectal cancer. Cancer affecting any of these organs is also called colorectal cancer.
exact cause unknown
Most colorectal cancers develop from polyps. The exact cause of the development of precancerous colon polyps leading to colorectal cancer is unknown. Creature; After a series of abnormalities occurs in cell DNA, it can change and turn into cancer. If a polyp is found during a colonoscopy, it is usually removed. Polyps removed during a colonoscopy are examined by a pathologist and evaluated to determine whether they contain cancerous or precancerous cells.
You may also need to be tested at a younger age.
The best screening methods are fecal occult blood test and colonoscopy. the age of starting such screening tests; It depends on risk factors, particularly a family history of colon and rectal cancer. Even if there is no family history of colorectal cancer or polyps, it is important to consult a specialist without delay if any symptoms suggestive of colorectal cancer are present at an early age.
Symptoms of colon cancer can be as follows:
- change in toilet habits
- in blood or on stool
- unexplained anemia
- abdominal or pelvic pain
- unexplained weight loss
- mumps disease
Some factors that increase the risk of developing colorectal polyps and cancer are;
Age: As you get older, your risk of getting colorectal polyps and cancer increases. Colorectal cancer is more common in people over the age of 50, but young adults can also develop colorectal cancer.
Other medical conditions: Type 2 diabetes, a history of previous cancers, a history of inflammatory bowel disease, and inherited conditions such as Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, may increase the risk of developing colorectal cancer.
Lifestyle: Consumption of alcohol and tobacco, not getting enough exercise and/or being overweight can increase the risk of developing colorectal cancer. Specifically, smoking increases the risk of precancerous polyps and colorectal cancer. Diets high in fat and calories and low in fiber, fruits and vegetables have been linked to a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer.
Scans should start on time
It is recommended that people at risk for colorectal cancer begin routine screening at age 45, and those at average risk at age 50 at the latest. However, if there is a personal or family history of colorectal polyps, cancer, or inflammatory bowel disease, screening may need to begin before age 45. Because colorectal polyps and cancer affect both sexes, both men and women should be screened. Colorectal cancer is treated according to the stage of the cancer. treatment options; To implement surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy by an experienced team in an experienced center.