Wednesday, September 28, 2022

Alcohol and tobacco: what is the role of genetics in substance abuse, according to science?

Researchers found that smoking genes were associated with pain perception and food responsiveness, as well as abuse of other drugs (Getty).
Researchers found that smoking genes were associated with pain perception and food responsiveness, as well as abuse of other drugs (Getty).

some people can cigarette smoking For one year and give up easily, while others become accustomed for life. same goes for excessive alcohol consumption, Until now, the underlying causes of these addictive behaviors were unknown.

Now new research has indicated that there may be a genetic predisposition in some individuals who increase substance abuse risk, researchers of University of North Carolina (UNC) School of Medicine in the United States, led by hijung wonare starting to understand them Inherent genetic differences.

Won, assistant professor of genetics and member of UNC Neuroscience Center and his companions Genes linked to smoking and excessive drinking identified, researchers found that These genes are over-represented in certain types of neurons.Brain cells that prompt other cells to send chemical signals throughout the brain.

    Alcohol is the most commonly consumed legal drug among young people (Getty Images)
Alcohol is the most commonly consumed legal drug among young people (Getty Images)

researchers who published their work magazine molecular psychiatryHe also found that genes underlying smoking were related to Pain perception and food responseAs well as Abuse of other drugs, such as cocaine. other genes associated with was associated with alcohol consumption stress and learningAs well as with the abuse of other drugs such as morphine.

Given the lack of current treatment options for substance use disorder, the researchers also analyzed publicly available drug databases to identify potential new treatments for substance abuse.

“We found that Antipsychotics and other mood stabilizers may provide therapeutic relief. for people struggling with addiction,” said Nancy C. of Vonn’s lab and first author of the paper. And we believe our research provides a good foundation for research focused on creating better treatments to address drug dependence. Is.”

Other genes associated with alcohol use were linked to stress and learning/(Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images)
Other genes associated with alcohol use were linked to stress and learning/(Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images)

prolonged substance use And this consequent disorder many are connected Common diseases and conditionsIn form of lung cancer, malformation of the liver You Mental, However, few treatment options are available, mainly due to gaps in the understanding of the biological processes involved.

“We know from twin studies that genetics This may explain why some people use and abuse substances in addition to environmental factors such as family problems or personal trauma. Analysis won. genetic studies, such as genome-wide association ,GWASfor its acronym in English), provide a way of identifying Genes linked to complex human traits, such as nicotine addiction or heavy alcohol use,

Genes associated with alcohol use and smoking were also associated with other types of substances, such as morphine and cocaine/
Genes associated with alcohol use and smoking were also associated with other types of substances, such as morphine and cocaine/

Through GWAS researchers can identify Regions in the genome that play a role in particular traits, compared to individuals who do not display the trait. However, Vonn said, genome-wide studies can’t tell us much about how genes in those regions affect a trait. This is because they are found in non-coding regions of the genome.”

This refers to the fact that the genes in these regions do not directly translate or encode their genetic information into the formation of proteins, which then perform a known biological function. So, what actually happens biologically is still mostly Stranger,

“We wanted to know what was happening in these areas,” Vonn continued. so we develop High-C Coupled Magma (H-Magma), a computational tool to help us understand more of what we are seeing in genome-wide studiesIn a previous publication, Vonn’s lab demonstrated how the application of H-magma to brain disorders identifies their respective genes and describes their underlying biology. And for the current paper, his lab used cigarette smoking and cigarette smoking. Expanded equipment for smoking.

Substance abuse and related disorders have long been linked to a number of common diseases and conditions, including lung cancer, liver disease, and mental illness (Getty).
Substance abuse and related disorders have long been linked to a number of common diseases and conditions, including lung cancer, liver disease, and mental illness (Getty).

They developed H-magma structures from dopaminergic neurons and cortical neurons, brain cell types that researchers have long implicated in substance use. Focusing on those two cell types, Won’s team H-MAGMA was applied to identify genes associated with each trait for GWAS findings related to smoking, nicotine dependence, problematic alcohol use,

Genes associated with alcohol use and smoking were also linked to other types of substances, such as morphine and cocaine., While the opioid crisis has caused a harmful social burden, robust GWAS on opioid use is not currently available. So Vonn’s team sought to determine whether genes associated with alcohol use and smoking could reveal the underlying genetics of common addictive behavior, genetic findings that could extend to other substances of abuse.

,Our analyzes showed that the expression of genes shared between smoking and alcohol consumption may be altered by other forms of substances such as cocaine added. By characterizing the biological functions of these genes, we will be able to identify the biological mechanisms underlying addiction, which can be generalized to a variety of substance use disorders.” With these findings in hand, it is now time for scientists to find molecules. It is possible to test for diseases that make addiction much less likely.

read on:

Problematic alcohol use: what are the warning signs in teens
Quit Smoking: What Are the Best Ways to Achieve It?
Consumption of alcohol: A global study suggests that people under 40 have a higher health risk
Cigarettes kill more than 8 million people in the world every year

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