A year after the devastating eruption at Indonesia’s Mount Semeru, Java’s tallest and most active volcano erupted again in early December 2022 and Landsat 9 captured this stunning photo
Late on December 3, a series of explosions erupted from the summit crater. Gas and ash that rose up to 6100 metersAccording to the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre. Intense activity continued throughout the next day.
Operational Land Imager-2 (OLI-2) captured this natural-color image of a volcano erupting on Landsat 9 Semeru On December 4th, 2022 at approximately 9:30 AM local time (02:30 Universal Time).
Volcanic plumes typically contain a mixture of ash and volcanic gases, including water vapor, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrogen halides. In this case, a massive convective cloud, probably drawing energy from the heat of the explosion, has obscured parts of the plume. Diffuse ash slightly obscures the shadow of the large cloud (directly to the west) and the underlying landscape to the west in this wider version of the image.
below the large convection cloud and to the east of what appears to be edge of a pyroclastic flow which descends through a river channel on the south-eastern side of the mountain. Billowing avalanches of superheated ash, tephra, earth, and other debris travel at great speed and can destroy most things in their path. The December 3–4 eruption generated many of these flows.including one that reached a length of 19 kilometers (12 mi), according to the Indonesian National Board of Disaster Management (BNPM).
Since there had been heavy rain prior to this event, the pyroclastic flows probably mixed with rainwater and turned into muddy waves as they descended the mountain. According to the Associated Press, the flow destroyed a bridge and buried homes up to their roofs.
The eruption has forced nearly 2,000 people to flee their homes., On December 4, 2022, the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (PVMBG) raised the status of the eruption from 3 (“Siaga” or “Alert”) to 4 (“Awas” or “Caution”), the longest . On a scale of 1-4. The PVMBG urged people to stay at least 5 kilometers from the summit and at least 500 meters from the Besuk Kobokan river channel.
picture of nasa earth observatory By Joshua Stevens, using Landsat data from the US Geological Survey. Story by Adam Voiland.
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