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Thursday, December 01, 2022

brain fog that can persist after passing covid-19

You may know someone who, after COVID-19, forgets things, suffers from a headache or has yet to fully recover his or her sense of smell. These symptoms include within the occurrence brain fog In which a part of the population has been hit by the epidemic. If it persists over time, its effects can be harmful.

nervous system sufferers

Despite the fact that SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infection primarily affects the respiratory system, most patients diagnosed with COVID-19 show neurological symptoms such as loss of smell, headache, sleep disorders and memory loss .

On the other hand, several studies indicate that patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease are more likely to suffer from the disease more severely.

Taken together, these signs are a clear indicator that the virus is affecting the nervous system as well. It is therefore more important to study what the long-term effects and consequences of this disease may be in the brain.

Trojan Horse and Nervous Highway

But how does SARS-CoV-2 reach the brain? Direct access to this organ is not easy as it is surrounded by a true wall of blood vessels known as the blood-brain barrier. Despite this, SARS-CoV-2 is able to circumvent this protection by various mechanisms.

For starters, it can send signals that cause the blood-brain barrier to change. In addition, it is able to enter our own cells and use them as a vehicle to penetrate the brain. strategy is a real Trojan horse, because the pathogen is to conceal To be able to overcome certain obstacles recognizable by our body would, otherwise, be insurmountable.

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Finally, SARS-CoV-2 can also travel through neurons, which are distributed throughout our bodies forming a network of nerves. The virus is able to reach a neuronal extension and move through them as if they were a highway that ends in the brain. Right in the nose, the site of virus entry and infection is the olfactory nerve, which may be a direct entry to the brain.

File 20220803 10782 V9K182.Png?Ixlib=Rb 1.1

Diagram of the direct and indirect pathways of brain damage caused by SARS-CoV-2. David Bagliato Vargas, Miriam Bettinetti Luke, author provided

The COVID-19 virus can indirectly affect the brain as well. It occurs when our immune system reacts to the presence of foreign microorganisms by releasing molecules called cytokines. These molecules act as a call signal and trigger an inflammatory response in the tissue where they are located.

This response is, in theory, beneficial, as it manages to attract various army cells that will fight the infection. However, if it persists over time, it can lead to chronic inflammatory conditions that can be very dangerous and compromise the functions of various organs, including the brain.

In individuals with diseases associated with fine aging, this state of chronic inflammation is prevalent. In particular, Alzheimer’s patients are known to suffer from neuroinflammation. This means that your brain’s immune system is activated continuously and over time, causing damage to structures and more neuronal death and neurodegeneration.

Can Covid-19 cause Alzheimer’s?

Now, then, what is the connection between neurodegenerative processes and COVID-19? The relationship between viral infection and neurodegeneration has long been known, and as might be inferred, the point at which the two pathologies converge is inflammation.

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In the case of SARS-CoV-2, its ability to induce a generalized inflammatory state in our bodies may facilitate the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, the cytokine storm that is generated as a rapid defense mechanism is able to control physiological parameters. For example, an imbalance in iron levels increases the number of oxidizing molecules in neurons that worsen the damage. This leads to more neuronal death and more neurodegeneration.

In favor of this theory, some studies suggest that patients with COVID-19 present neuronal loss in the same areas of the brain as damage in Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, neurodegeneration biomarkers are increased in many patients hospitalized for COVID-19.

It is clear that SARS-CoV-2 has a more profound effect on the brains of patients than initially thought. A better understanding of the interaction of this virus with the central nervous system could prevent the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s worldwide and for some time without treatment.Conversation

Juana Andreo López, FPI researcher. Researchers at the Center for Networked Biomedical Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIBERNED) and the Malaga Biomedical Research Institute (IBIMA), University of Málaga; David Bagliato Vargas, Beatriz Galindo Senior Distinguished Researcher. Center for Network Biomedical Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIBERNED) and Málaga Biomedical Research Institute (IBIMA), University of Málaga and Miriam Bettinetti Luc, researcher at the Center for Network Biomedical Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIBERNED) and Málaga Biomedical Research Institute (IBIMA) , University of Malaga

This article was originally published on The Conversation. read the original.

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