Friday, February 3, 2023

Confirmation: Adding salt to food increases the risk of heart disease

The frequent addition of low salt to food reduces the risk of heart disease, heart failure and ischemia.

Study published online by the journal Journal of the American College of Cardiology It also highlights the value of behavioral interventions to reduce salt intake.

The authors from various US universities note that existing epidemiological research provides conflicting results due to a lack of practical methods to assess dietary sodium intake over long periods of time.

editorial Dietary salt intake preferences and risk of heart disease Published in the same journal, it stresses that the study showed a lower risk of stroke, major cardiovascular events, and even death from any cause in the study group, compared to those who used salt in general. than used salt substitutes.

For this reason, they were more interested in whether the frequency with which salt is added to food has a direct effect on CVD incidence and/or CVD subtypes. In addition, several recent studies have also shown that the frequency of adding salt to foods may not only represent some people’s discretionary sodium intake, but may also reflect an individual’s long-term taste preference.
In this sense, the frequency with which salt is added to food can be considered a surrogate marker of long-term sodium intake in those following a Western diet.

The article assessed whether the frequency of adding salt to food was related to the risk of cardiovascular disease in 176,570 UK Biobank participants. They also examined the association between the frequency of adding salt to food and the DASH diet in relation to cardiovascular risk.

Initially, the research used a questionnaire to collect data on the frequency of adding salt to food, not including salt used in cooking.
They further asked participants whether they had made major changes to their diet over the past five years, as well as whether they had completed 1 to 5 rounds of 24-hour dietary reminders over a three-year period.

The DASH-style diet prevents high blood pressure by limiting red and processed meat consumption while emphasizing vegetables, fruits, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, nuts and legumes.

While this provided benefits in terms of reducing the risk of heart disease, a recent clinical trial found that combining the DASH diet with sodium reduction was more beneficial for some cardiac biomarkers, including cardiac injury, stress, and inflammation. was.

Records of cardiovascular events were collected through clinical history, questionnaire, hospitalization data and death related subjects.

In general, study participants met the following conditions:

  • white supremacy;
  • Women put less salt;
  • He had a low body mass index;
  • He consumed alcohol, although it is more likely to do so;
  • They were less likely to remain current smokers;
  • They were more physically active.

The study group also had high blood pressure and chronic kidney disease, but the incidence of cancer was lower.

In addition, participants were more likely to follow a DASH-style diet and consume more fruits, vegetables, nuts and legumes, whole grains, low-fat but low-sugar diet drinks, or red/processed meats, which Used to add salt to foods. with high amounts of salt. frequency.

The researchers found that the association between dietary salt addition and heart disease risk was strongest among participants with lower socioeconomic status, as well as current smokers.

A higher modified DASH diet score was associated with a lower cardiac risk.

The authors highlight among the limitations of the study the self-reported frequency of adding salt to food and the exclusive enrollment of participants from the United Kingdom, which would limit generalizations to other populations with different eating behaviours.

However, they present their findings as encouraging and conducive to advancing the understanding of behavioral interventions related to salt in cardiovascular health.

Nation World News Desk
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