Saturday, June 25, 2022

Consumption of healthy plant-based foods linked to lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes

new research published diabetology (Journal of the European Union for the Study of Diabetes) [EASD]) found that consumption of healthy plant-based foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, coffee and legumes, is associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) in generally healthy people and their role in diabetes prevention. supports.

The study was conducted by Professor Frank Hu and colleagues from the Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA, and aimed to identify metabolite profiles related to various plant-based diets and potential associations between them. had to investigate. Profile and risk of developing T2D.

A metabolite is a substance used or produced by chemical processes in a living organism and includes the vast number of compounds found in various foods, as well as complex types of molecules as those compounds are broken down and stored in the body. converted for use by. Differences in the chemical composition of foods mean that a person’s diet should be reflected in their metabolite profiles. Recent technological advances in the field of high-throughput metabolomics profiling have ushered in a new era of nutritional research. Metabolomics is defined as the comprehensive analysis and identification of all the different metabolites present within a biological sample.

More than 90% of cases of diabetes are type 2, and the condition has become a major health threat worldwide. The global prevalence of the disease among adults has more than tripled in less than two decades, from about 150 million in 2000 to more than 450 million in 2019 and is projected to rise to nearly 700 million in 2045.

The global health burden of T2D is further increased by the many complications arising from the disease, both macrovascular, such as heart disease, and microvascular, which damage the kidneys, eyes, and nervous system. The diabetes epidemic is mainly caused by unhealthy diet, being overweight or obese, genetic predisposition and other lifestyle factors such as lack of exercise. Plant-based diets, especially a healthy diet rich in high-quality foods such as whole grains, fruits and vegetables, are associated with a reduced risk of developing T2D, but the underlying mechanisms involved are not fully understood.

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The team analyzed blood plasma samples and dietary intakes of 10,684 participants from three prospective cohorts (the Nurses’ Health Study, the Nurses’ Health Study II and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study). The participants were predominantly white, middle-aged (mean age 54 years), and with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 25.6 kg/m.2,

Study participants completed food frequency questionnaires (FFQs), which were scored according to adherence to three plant-based diets: a composite plant-based dietary index (PDI), a healthy plant-based dietary index (hPDI), and An unhealthy plant-based dietary index (UPDI). Dietary indices were based on that person’s intake of 18 food groups: healthy plant foods (whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, vegetable oils, and tea/coffee); Unhealthy plant foods (refined cereals, fruit juices, potatoes, sugar-sweetened beverages, and sweets/sweets); and animal foods (animal fats, dairy, eggs, fish/seafood, meat, and miscellaneous animal-based foods). The team differentiated between healthy and unhealthy plant foods according to their association with T2D, heart disease, certain cancers, and other conditions including obesity and high blood pressure.

Researchers tested blood samples taken back in the late 1980s and 1990s in the early phase of the three studies described above to create metabolite profile scores for participants, and any cases of incident T2D during the study’s follow-up period. was recorded. Analysis of these data along with diet index scores enabled the team to find any associations between metabolite profiles, diet index, and T2D risk.

The study found that compared to participants who did not develop T2D, those who were diagnosed with the disease during follow-up had lower intakes of healthy plant-based foods, as well as lower scores for the PDI and HPDI. Was. In addition, they had a higher average BMI, and were more likely to have high blood pressure and cholesterol levels, use blood pressure and cholesterol medications, have a family history of diabetes, and be less physically active.

Metabolomics data showed that plant-based diets were associated with unique multi-metabolite profiles, and these patterns differed significantly between healthy and unhealthy plant-based diets. Furthermore, metabolite profile scores for both the overall plant-based diet and the healthy plant-based diet were inversely associated with incident T2D in a generally healthy population, independent of BMI, and other diabetes risk factors, whereas for No relationship was observed. Unhealthy plant based diet. Consequently, higher metabolite profile scores for the PDI and HPDI indicated closer adherence to those diets and a lower risk of developing T2D.

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Further analysis showed that after adjusting for levels of trigonelline, hippurate, isoleucine, a small set of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and several other intermediate metabolites, the association between a plant-based diet and T2D largely disappeared, suggesting that they may play an important role. In linking those diets to incident diabetes. Trigonelline, for example, is found in coffee and has been shown to have beneficial effects on insulin resistance in animal studies, while higher levels of hippurate are associated with better glycemic control, increased insulin secretion, and a lower risk of T2D. The team suggests that these metabolites may be further investigated and may provide a mechanistic explanation of how plant-based diets may have beneficial effects on T2D risk.

Although teasing out the contributions of individual foods is difficult because they were analyzed together as a single pattern, consumption of polyphenol-rich plant foods such as fruits, vegetables, coffee and legumes results in individual metabolites from all healthy plants. -based diets are closely related. And a lower risk of diabetes.”


Professor Frank Hu, Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA

The authors conclude: “Our findings support the beneficial role of a healthy plant-based diet in the prevention of diabetes and provide new insights for future investigations … the relationship of plant-based diets to the development of type 2 diabetes. risk.”

Since they only collected blood samples at a time, the authors also believe that long-term replicated metabolic data are needed to understand how dietary changes are related to changes in metabolism, leading to T2 D risk is affected.

Source:

Journal Reference:

Wang, F., and others. (2022) Plasma metabolite profile and risk of type 2 diabetes related to a plant-based diet. diabetology, doi.org/10.1007/s00125-022-05692-8.

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