Tuesday, October 3, 2023

Decoded: Why not all obese patients get diabetes

New York, June 5

Obesity, often as a result of eating too much fat and sugar with little physical activity, is known to be a contributing factor to the development of type 2 diabetes. However, some obese people do not develop the disease that affects millions of people globally. Turns out that their gut bacteria play a role.

Andrey Morgun and Natalia Shuljenko of Oregon State University and Giorgio Trinchieri of the National Cancer Institute developed a novel analytical technique, multi-organ network analysis, to explore the mechanisms behind early-stage systemic insulin resistance.

The findings, published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, showed that a particular type of gut microbe made of white adipose tissue that contained macrophage cells, large cells that are part of the immune system, linked to insulin resistance.

In the human body, white adipose tissue is the main type of fat.

“Our experiments and analyzes predict that a high-fat/high-sugar diet acts primarily in white adipose tissue by driving microbiota-related damage in the energy synthesis process, leading to systemic insulin resistance,” said Morgun, of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Associate Professor said. OSU College of Pharmacy.

“Treatments that modify a patient’s microbiota that target insulin resistance in adipose tissue macrophage cells may be a new therapeutic strategy for type 2 diabetes.”

The human gut microbiome consists of more than 10 trillion microbial cells from approximately 1,000 different bacterial species.

“The so-called ‘Western diet’, high in saturated fat and refined sugars, is one of the primary factors. But gut bacteria have an important role in mediating the effects of the diet,” Shuljenko said.

Experimenting in mice, looking at gut, liver, muscle and white adipose tissue, the team found that “adipose tissue has a major role in systemic insulin resistance”.

In addition he “discovered that the Ossylobacter microbe, enriched with Western diets, causes the growth of insulin-resistant adipose tissue macrophages”.

However, the researchers add that Oscillibacter is probably not the only microbial regulator for the expression of the key genes they have identified, the MMP12, and the MMP12 pathway, while clearly adjuvant, is probably not the only important pathway based on which the gut’s immune system functions. There are germs. Present.

Earlier studies showed that another microbial species “Rhomboutia ilialis impairs glucose tolerance by inhibiting insulin levels, which may be relevant for more advanced stages of type 2 diabetes”, Shuljenko said. IANS

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