Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body does not effectively use the insulin it does produce. Insulin is a hormone that controls the conversion of blood sugar into energy.
hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia (increased blood sugar) is an effect of uncontrolled diabetes, and over time it severely damages multiple organs and systems, producing neurological and visual changes, kidney failure, poor healing, and stroke.
“According to World Health Organization (WHO) data, the number of people with diabetes has increased and is expected to reach 522 million by the year 2030. In 2019, the disease directly caused 1.5 million deaths”, Dr. Valeria Develops El Hajj, National Medical Director of OSPEDYC. And he adds that: “Diabetes is a treatable pathology that has some hereditary roots and others that are largely preventable due to unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity and difficulties in accessing health services and medicines.”
Diabetes types and treatment
OSPEDYC professionals explain that the different types of diabetes and their treatments are:
, Type 1 diabetes: More hereditary factor that usually appears before the age of 30. The treatment of this type of diabetes is the daily administration of insulin.
, Type 2 diabetes: This is caused by the inability of the body to respond to insulin. This is the most frequent type, with between 90% and 95% of cases, being related to lifestyle changes. Treatment for type 2 diabetes is to try to change habits that are healthy, for example, physical activity and weight control.
, Gestational diabetes: Appears during pregnancy in a non-diabetic woman. A glucose load test is recommended at 24 weeks of pregnancy. With regard to treatment, oral antidiabetic drugs are prescribed to the pregnant woman.
, Other specific types: LADA, Modi, secondary to drugs, related to other diseases. Treatment, in this case, is the administration of insulin (advanced stage).
What are the most frequent symptoms?
, Sed intense (polydipsia).
, Excessive hunger (polyphagia).
, Frequent urination (polyuria).
Other symptoms that diabetes presents are: weight loss, lack of energy, fatigue and excessive sleepiness, visual disturbances, recurrent infections.
, Symptoms of diabetes and random blood glucose >= 200 mg/dL.
, Asymptomatic with fasting glycemia >= 126 mg/dL after 8 hours of fasting (minimum of 2 doses).
, Asymptomatic with glycemia >= 200 mg/dL at 2 hours after the curve.
, Glycosylated hemoglobin: 6.5% or more.
, Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: Glucose >200mg/dL 2 hours after drinking a sweetened beverage (currently used only in pregnant women).
Dr. Valeria El Haj comments that some complications can arise in patients with diabetes. Among the main, we can find:
, Diabetic retinopathy: visual disturbances.
, Diabetic nephropathy: damage to the kidneys.
, Diabetic neuropathy: lesions of the brain.
, Acute (usually requiring hospitalization): diabetic ketoacidosis, nonketotic hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome, hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis.
, Other: cardiac changes, vascular changes.
“Diabetes cannot be cured, but it can be treated successfully. Complications of diabetes can be prevented by controlling blood sugar, blood pressure (BP), and high cholesterol levels if they occur. For this reason, Incorporating healthy habits such as a healthy diet and physical activity, in addition to respecting the series of controls and care prescribed by the medical professional, helps to avoid complications and improve the quality of life of the patient, since it is a disease that There is no cure”, concluded the National Medical Director of OSPEDYC.