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Sunday, November 27, 2022

Early symptoms of sarcoma: one of the most common tumors in young people

Some of the manifestations are intermittent pain or the appearance of a lump.

Bone sarcomas constitute the majority of the most common malignant bone tumors. Photo: Shutterstock.

The treatments of cancer patients mainly depend on the diagnosis and identification of the tumor, the earlier it is detected, the more greater chance of survival patient and disease remission. However, this is one of the biggest challenges in approaching cancer treatment.

Many of the cases have a high survival rate if diagnosed early, as is the case with kidney cancer. The same goes for bone sarcomas, which make up the majority of the most common malignant bone tumors.

It must be taken into account that bone sarcomas are very rare tumors. The two most prevalent are osteosarcoma, responsible for just over half of diagnoses, and Ewing’s sarcoma, what does a third party mean. Less than 10% of cases are chondrosarcomas and, residually, angiosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, chordoma, adamantinoma and other sarcomas appear.

This condition affects young populations, despite the low incidence indicated, constitutes the fifth cause of cancer in adolescents and young people between 15 and 19 years of age. Although osteosarcoma has what is called a bimodal age distributionthat is, there are two vital moments in which it occurs more frequently, between 13 and 16 years of age and after 65 years of age. Ewing’s sarcoma is considered a cancer pediatric disease, as 90% of cases appear in patients between five and 25 years of age.

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The exact reason why it affects is unknown, especially in these age groups. One of the hypotheses suggests that osteosarcoma may be related fast bone growth, something that occurs more drastically at puberty. Meanwhile, Ewing’s sarcoma line of research points to changes in chromosomes 11 and 22, an abnormality that generates an abnormal protein.

According to the American Cancer Society, five-year survival rates are 77% for chondrosarcoma, if localized. A little higher is that of Ewing’s sarcoma, which is 82%. The numbers are drastically reduced if it spreads to other parts of the body, so it is advisable to pay pay attention to the first signs see a doctor as soon as possible.

Symptoms

In general, the first symptoms with which this disease manifests are bone pain, inflammation and pain in the surroundings of the affected area, recurrent fractures in the same area, fatigue and involuntary weight loss.

According to the Mayo Clinic, one of the warning signs that can help is if the pain is intermittent, that is, it comes and goes constantly, increases at night, and is not relieved after painkillers are prescribed.

Symptoms usually last for several months and there is often a history of trauma or musculoskeletal overload in the area, although this is not a cause for the disease to develop, but rather a trigger for the symptoms themselves.

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Risk factors

It is also convenient to review the risk factors associated with the disease. As for osteosarcoma, it is noted having received radiotherapy to the bone in the past or the presence of Paget’s disease, a chronic bone disorder that causes bone fragility.

Although it is not known for sure, it is believed that there is a hereditary component, so while it does not develop normally until old age, its presence could be a risk for osteosarcoma.

Other hereditary genetic syndromes have also been associated with the presence of bone cancer, such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a rare disease characterized by the early onset of multiple primary cancers. However, according to SEOM, this happens in very few cases.

In the case of this investigation, they concluded that the six-year life expectancy for this tumor was less than 40%. However, the sample consisted of fewer patients, 41, compared to the national database that the American Cancer Society has access to.

What this research agrees with the rest of the data is that life expectancy has greatly improved in recent years. As Ignacio Durán, oncologist and researcher in the field, points out to the Foundation for Excellence and Quality in Oncology (ECO) “with an adequate prevention policy, [en términos de todos los cánceres] one in three cancers and that’s definitely a lot.

Source consulted here.

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