On Tuesday, Pfizer asked US regulators to allow COVID-19 vaccine boosters for anyone over 18, amid concerns about the increase in the spread of the coronavirus during holiday travel and gatherings.
Older Americans and other groups particularly vulnerable to the virus have gained access to a third dose of Pfizer and BioNTech vaccine since September. But the FDA said it will rapidly distribute boosters for younger ages if warranted.
WATCH: CDC Director of Childhood Vaccinations, Booster Recommendations, Vaccination Hesitations
Pfizer presents the first results of a booster study involving 10,000 people to prove it is time to further expand the booster campaign.
While all three vaccines used in the United States continue to provide reliable protection against serious illness and death from COVID-19, the effectiveness of vaccines against milder infections may decline over time.
A new study by Pfizer concluded that the booster could restore protection against symptomatic infection by up to 96%, even when the extra-contagious delta variant was gaining ground. The side effects were similar to those seen with the first two shots of the company.
On average, 11 months after the last Pfizer vaccination, trial participants received a third dose or dummy vaccine. Researchers tracked any infections that occurred at least a week later and so far counted five cases of symptomatic COVID-19 among booster recipients, compared to 109 cases among people who received bogus vaccinations.
The Biden administration initially envisioned boosters for all adults, but faced major setback in September when FDA scientific advisers rejected additional doses of Pfizer for everyone. The group was not convinced that young, healthy people needed another dose, especially when most of the world’s population remains unvaccinated.
However, according to today’s policy, about 2 out of every 3 vaccinated adults will qualify within the next few months – and many of those who don’t can get an additional shot because most vaccine providers do not qualify.
Rules in force: People who originally received the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine are eligible for booster vaccinations after six months if they are 65 or older, or are at high risk for COVID-19 due to underlying health problems, their work or conditions life. Because Johnson & Johnson’s single-dose vaccine has not proven to be as effective as its two-dose competitors, any J&J recipient can receive a booster shot in at least two months.
And regardless of the initial vaccination, the United States allows revaccination of another company’s vaccine, called mixing and matching.
If the FDA approves Pfizer boosters for all adults, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention will make recommendations for their use.
Globally, boosters are also a hodgepodge. In some countries, they are limited to the elderly or those in poor health, while in others there are several restrictions. For example, in Israel, Pfizer boosters are allowed for anyone over 12 years old.