Wednesday, September 28, 2022

four eye diseases caused by diabetes

Diabetes can affect eye health when blood sugar, also known as blood sugar, is too high.

When these diseases occur early, they often have no symptoms. Photo: Shutterstock.

High blood sugar levels in diabetic patients can be a harbinger of certain eye difficulties. These conditions include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema, cataracts and glaucoma.

In general, patients with diabetes They develop low vision or blindness. That’s why it’s important to take steps to prevent or prevent the progression of diabetic eye disease by taking care of yourself. diabetes,

  • control blood sugar;

  • blood pressure;

  • cholesterol;

  • stop smoking cigarettes;

  • Get your dilated eyes checked once a year.

Once the damage begins, there are usually no warning signs of diabetic eye disease or vision loss.

So a comprehensive dilated eye exam helps your doctor detect and treat eye problems early, even before significant vision loss.

How does diabetes affect my eyes?

When people change their health care plans diabetes or for drugs diabetes Sometimes their vision remains blurry for a few days or weeks.

High blood glucose can alter the fluid levels or cause the tissues in your eyes that help you focus to swell, leading to blurred vision. This type of blurred vision is temporary and goes back when glucose levels return to normal.

If your blood sugar level remains high for too long, it can damage the blood vessels behind your eyes.

This damage can begin during prediabetes, when your glucose level is higher than normal, but not high enough for a diagnosis. diabetes, Damaged blood vessels can leak fluid, causing swelling.

New weakened blood vessels may also begin to form. These blood vessels can bleed into the central part of the eye, forming scar tissue, or increasing the pressure in the inner part of the eye to dangerous levels.

Four eye diseases that can pose a threat to vision are:

diabetic retinopathy

During the early stages, the blood vessels may weaken, bulge, or leak fluid into the retina. This stage is known as nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy.

However, it is likely that some blood vessels will become clogged, leading to the proliferation of new blood vessels on the surface of the retina, which can lead to serious vision problems.

with one in three diabetes Already have some symptoms of diabetic retinopathy over the age of 40

diabetic macular edema

diabetes Causes swelling of the macula, known as diabetic macular edema. Over time, the disease can destroy clear vision, leading to partial vision loss or blindness.

Macular edema usually develops in people who already have other symptoms of retinopathy.

eye disease

This is a group of eye diseases that can damage the optic nerve (the bundle of nerves that connects the eye to the brain).

diabetes Doubles your chances of getting glaucoma, which can lead to vision loss and blindness if left untreated.


people with diabetes They are more likely to have cloudy lenses. Cloudy lens is known as cataract.

people with diabetes Cataracts may develop at a younger age than people who do not.

Who is most likely to develop diabetic eye disease?

with someone diabetes You may have diabetic eye disease. If left untreated your risk of:

  • high blood sugar level

  • high blood pressure

  • High blood cholesterol and smoking can also increase the risk of developing diabetic eye disease.

diabetes which occurs only during pregnancy, known as diabetes Gestational, usually does not cause eye problems. Researchers still don’t know for sure why this is so.

Your chances of developing diabetic eye disease increase the longer you have diabetes,

Consider starting testing if:

diabetes Type 1, yearly within 5 years from diagnosis.

diabetes Type 2, annual checkups immediately after diagnosis.

diabetes gestational: with women diabetes Type 1 and type 2 should have an eye exam before becoming pregnant or in the first 3 months of pregnancy.

What are the symptoms of diabetic eye diseases?

Especially with diabetic retinopathy, you may not feel pain or see changes in vision as damage begins to build up inside your eye.

When symptoms do occur, they may include:

  • blurred or wavy vision

  • frequent vision changes, sometimes from day to day

  • dark areas or vision loss

  • poor color vision

  • dark spots or black filaments (also called floaters)

  • Flash of light

If you have any of these symptoms, talk to your eye doctor.

When should I see a doctor immediately?

Call your doctor right away if you notice any sudden changes in your vision, including flashes of light, more dark spots (floaters) than usual, or a veil over your eye feeling. These vision changes may be symptoms of retinal detachment, which is a medical emergency.

Widely spaced eye examination is suggested to detect eye problems diabetes,

In addition, Dr.

The specialist may also suggest other tests based on your medical history, as well as suggest an eye exam more than once a year, in addition to your careful monitoring. diabetes,


Doctors may treat late-stage eye problems with medication, laser treatment, surgery, or a combination of these options.


Your doctor may treat your eyes with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs, such as aflibercept, bevacizumab, or ranibizumab.

These medicines stop the growth of abnormal blood vessels in the eye.

Anti-VEGF drugs can prevent fluid leakage, which may help treat diabetic macular edema.

laser treatment

Laser treatment, also known as photocoagulation, involves burning a small amount of light into the eye with a beam of light. This method treats blood vessels that are leaking fluid and edema or fluid buildup.

There are two types of laser treatment:

  • Scattered laser, also known as panretinal photocoagulation (PRP), covers a large area of ​​the retina. This method treats the growth of abnormal blood vessels, known as proliferative diabetic retinopathy.


Vitrectomy is a surgery that removes the transparent, gelatinous material that fills the inner space of the eye, known as the vitreous humour. This procedure treats severe bleeding or scar tissue problems caused by proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

Scar tissue can cause the retina to detach from the tissue behind it, like wallpaper peeling off a wall. A retina that becomes loose or detaches completely can lead to blindness.

cataract lens surgery

In a surgical center or hospital, the doctor may remove the cloudy lens of the eye, where the cataract has formed, and replace it with an artificial lens. Most people usually have better vision after cataract surgery.

What if I’ve already lost some vision from diabetes?

Ask your eye care professional to help you find a low vision and rehabilitation clinic.

Specialized eye professionals can help you manage vision loss that cannot be corrected with glasses, contact lenses, medication, or surgery.

Source consulted here.

Nation World News Desk
Nation World News Desk
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