Thursday, June 30, 2022

Has cholera returned to Spain after 30 years?

The risk of cholera infection for the general population is almost zero. The case is of non-availability of drinking water in a field.

Ministry of Health is rejected that the girl who fell ill in Toledo This was the first case of autochthonous cholera in Spain., The Carlos III Institute of Health in Madrid conducted a detailed analysis after learning about the case and came to the conclusion that the girl who drank alcohol water from a non-potable water sourcereally suffering”enteritis por vibrio“, which reveals the presence of cholera bacteria in the water but the absence of the disease virus in the affected water.

victim girl mild symptoms A few hours after drinking water in a field, it was also sealed on the basis of suspicion, but was released after some time.

When the matter became known, experts were quick to make sure In reality “The risk to the general population is almost zero. As many people responsible for public health and research have already said, with the water quality control that exists in our country, a Calamity for contamination to reach the water supply network, tells Jacob Lorenzo-MoralesFull Professor in the field of Parasitology and Director of the University Institute of Tropical Diseases and Public Health of the Canary Islands of La Laguna University.

What is cholera?

Cholera is an infection caused by bacteria vibrio cholerae who lives in Intestine and can produce severe diarrhea and dehydration, In the case of this girl, the virus has been identified by analysis. Vibrio cholerae 01 no toxicgenicoAnd it seems that because of this he has not developed the disease.

It is contracted through ingestion of contaminated food or water, which is why it is practically no longer present in wealthy countries, although cases of cholera still occur frequently. Africa, Haiti either Southeast Asia,

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According to the World Health Organization, there are between 13 and 4 million cases of cholera in the world every year, and 21,000 to 143,000 people die from this cause.

symptoms of cholera

Many people who become infected with this bacteria do not develop symptoms Or they are mild, but they can infect others because they are eliminated through feces for a week or two. Only a minority may experience acute watery diarrhea with severe dehydration, which may fatal if left untreatedWHO says.

According to the Mayo Clinic, common symptoms caused by a cholera infection are:

  • Diarrhea: appears suddenly and can cause large fluid loss (up to 1 liter per hour).
  • nausea and vomiting: They are quick in infection and can last for hours.
  • dehydration: This results in vomiting and diarrhea. If you lose 10% of your body weight it is serious. Symptoms that come with dehydration are dry mouth, tiredness, sunken eyes, dry skin, little urine, low blood pressure or an irregular heartbeat.

Dehydration can cause mineral loss, which can lead to Twitch (due to loss of solium, chloride and potassium) and in extreme cases what is called Shock (Decreased blood volume reduces blood pressure and oxygen in the body) which can lead to death.

How is cholera treated?

The risk of cholera is lower in rich countries, although cases of cholera are reported around the world. If you are suffering from acute diarrhea, go to the doctor immediately as it cannot be ruled out that it is cholera. dehydration is one of the complications that can appear and it’s a medical emergency,

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In any case, there is no need to panic, because according to WHO, Cholera is a disease that is easily treated.

  • “Most cases can be treated satisfactorily by prompt administration Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS), Standard ORS sachet dissolves in 1 liter of water. Adult patients may require up to 6 liters of ORS to treat moderate dehydration on the first day.”point.
  • “with ill There is a risk of shock from severe dehydration and requires prompt administration of intravenous fluids. These patients should also receive Antibiotic medicines Suitable for shortening the duration of diarrhea, reducing the amount of rehydration fluids required, and reducing the amount and duration of V. cholerae excretion”add.

In any case, WHO reminds that ,Mass administration of antibiotics is not recommended because it has no proven effect on the spread of cholera and may contribute to antimicrobial resistance”, Therefore they should be used only in severe cases.

zinc is an appropriate adjuvant treatment for children under 5 years old, Because it shortens the duration of diarrhea and may prevent future episodes of other causes of acute watery diarrhea.

How can you get infected with cholera?

We have already said that the bacterium responsible for cholera is vibrio choleraewhich a. produces toxin In the small intestine which can be fatal. source of infection The following are the most common cholera infections, according to the Mayo Clinic:

  • contaminated well water, Public wells with untreated water are the main cause of cholera outbreaks.
  • raw seafood or undercooked from contaminated sites.
  • raw fruits and vegetables Where there is anger.
  • cereal Such as rice from areas prone to cholera.

Nation World News Desk
Nation World News Desk
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