Has the COVID-19 pandemic widened the mental health gap in the UK?

Study: Inequalities and mental health during the UK Coronavirus pandemic: an exploratory mixed methods.  Image Credit: Svetlana Khutornaia / Shutterstock.com

In a recent study published in BMC Public Health, Researchers investigated the various effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on mental health and inequalities within the adult population of the United Kingdom.

Since the declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic in March 2020, significant mental health implications have emerged amid the pandemic’s enormous health impact.

The pandemic has exacerbated existing mental health inequalities in the UK, thereby intensifying distress and loneliness. Vulnerable groups with pre-existing mental health conditions experienced severe deterioration during the lockdowns, while the economic effects disproportionately affected low-income individuals.

More research is needed to address the multifaceted and nuanced impacts on mental health and growing inequalities arising from the COVID-19 pandemic. These studies should focus on prevention, early intervention, and the development of personalized solutions for different population groups that experience different effects, especially in the context of developing socioeconomic differences and worsening mental health symptoms.

About studying

The current study used a design that included online surveys and focus group discussions (FGDs) aimed at understanding the depth, nature, and complexity of mental health experiences during the pandemic.

FGDs were carefully conducted to clarify perceptions surrounding inequalities not captured by quantitative survey data. More specifically, FGDs focus on different elements such as disparities in experiences of inequality, socio-economic differences, and mental health resilience and coping mechanisms. This approach facilitates an in-depth exploration of individual points of view and facilitated policy responses to emerging issues.

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Study participants were contacted through intermediary organizations and received several instructions before giving their consent to participate. Discussions were conducted virtually, with subsequent findings being transcribed and analyzed through thematic analysis conducted by specialists in public mental health and qualitative research.

Qualitative insights are combined with quantitative results from surveys to provide a comprehensive understanding of how the pandemic is affecting mental health among different demographic segments in the UK. offers an integrated view of the pandemic’s many effects on mental health. , underlines the value of both quantitative and qualitative methods in addressing the experiences of diverse populations.

Study findings

In exploring socioeconomic inequalities during the pandemic, three survey waves and FGDs revealed a significant impact on mental health in different demographic segments.

The second wave, conducted in April 2020, identified various concerns, such as financial concerns and job loss in 2,221 participants, thus showing the harmful effects of socioeconomic inequalities on mental wellness . Wave four in June 2020 illustrated the varied mental health experiences of 4,382 participants as lockdown measures were eased, with 53% experiencing anxiety.

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The study continued in Wave Six in August 2020, focusing on resilience and coping strategies among 4,584 participants. Coping experiences include access to nature and family connections, which are often described as cathartic for most individuals. Corresponding FGDs on resilience and coping strategies revealed different levels of resilience among participants.

The focus groups generally magnified the impact of the pandemic on existing inequalities, with particular emphasis on self-employed individuals, small businesses, and young people. Discussions are rife with concerns about the potential worsening of inequalities due to the UK’s departure from the European Union (EU), raising financial uncertainty and feelings of powerlessness. The influx of first-time callers to mental health support lines underscores the widespread emotional impact of the pandemic and likely reflects a population-level mental health crisis.

The participants unanimously emphasized the urgent need for more funding to address the social determinants of health and well-being. The widespread lack of clarity and coherence in government information sharing and communication across the UK is also a prominent concern, as it adds stress and confusion to an already tense environment.

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Different experiences and concerns have emerged regarding the reopening of society, with pressures to maintain social interactions deeper among ethnic minorities and older adults, who expressed in fear of reduced protection and increased vulnerability after locking. Some children have expressed a preference for online education, and concerns have been raised over their adjustment to mainstream schooling.

Nature and outdoor activities have emerged as the most important coping mechanism, as they provide comfort and mental health support during lockdowns. The benefits of working from home are also widely discussed, with an emphasis on reducing the financial and emotional strain it provides; however, potential pressures in premature social interactions have been identified as stress points.

Online and offline connections with family, friends, and community are considered essential for emotional stability. However, concerns persist over high-risk social interactions and the potential disruption of others.

The importance of community cohesion and mutual support groups is highlighted as a counter to feelings of powerlessness and overwhelm, thus serving as a beacon of hope to navigate the many challenges of the time.


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