Friday, February 3, 2023

Hydration, Health and Mortality

High normal serum sodium in midlife as a risk factor for accelerated biological ageing, chronic disease and premature mortality

Good hydration linked to healthy aging

The NIH findings may provide early clues about advanced biological aging and increased risks of premature death.

High normal serum sodium in midlife as a risk factor for accelerated biological ageing, chronic disease and premature mortality



It is known that some people age faster than others, some live to old age without any diseases, while others develop age-related chronic diseases. With a rapidly aging population and an emerging epidemic of chronic diseases, finding mechanisms that slow down the aging process and implementing preventive measures have become a new challenge for biomedical research and public health.

in mice, Lifelong water restriction shortens lifespan and promotes degenerative changes. Here, we test the hypothesis that optimal hydration may slow down the aging process in humans.


We did a group analysis of the study data Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities With mid-age enrollment (45–66 years, n = 15,752) and 25-year follow-up. We used serum sodium as an indicator of hydration habits. To estimate the relative speed of ageing, we calculated biological age (BA) from age-dependent biomarkers and assessed the risks of chronic disease and premature mortality.


Analysis showed that midlife serum sodium >142 mmol/L was associated with a 39% increased risk of developing chronic disease (hazard ratio) [HR] = 1.39, confidence interval [IC] 95% CI: 1.18–1.63) and >144 mmol/L with a higher risk of premature mortality of 21% (HR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.02–1.45).

Those with serum sodium >142 mmol/L were 50% more likely to be older than their chronological age (OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.14–1.96). Higher AB was associated with an increased risk of chronic disease (HR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.50–1.93) and premature mortality (HR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.39–1.83).


people whose serum sodium tends to be higher in middle age 142 mmol/L They are at a higher risk of becoming biologically older, developing chronic diseases, and dying at a younger age. Intervention studies are needed to confirm the link between hydration and aging.

Figure 1
Serum sodium and risk of all-cause mortality in middle-aged people in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. A) Summary of the ARIC study and exclusion criteria. B, C, D) Using the Classification and Regression Tree (CART) algorithm, divide study participants into four groups based on serum sodium measured at visits 1 and 2 and at the end of the 25-year follow-up Cumulative death rate. b) Summary of the results of the CART algorithm for group segmentation. c) Histograms showing the distribution of study participants according to serum sodium. Clusters identified by the CART algorithm are shown in different colours. The mortality rate and the number of people in each group at the end of 25 years of follow-up are shown above the histogram. d) mean age does not differ between sodium groups. E, F) Assessment of the relative risk of all-cause mortality in the four sodium groups. e) Kaplan–Meier survival analysis: P<0.001 (log-rank test). All pairwise multiple comparison procedures): ∗P , 0,04, ∗∗P , 0,001 (mHolm-Sidak method). see table S2 is at risk for N at each time point. Funtime to event analysis: the COX proportional hazards model. People who have middle-age serum sodium above 144 mmol/l or below 137 mmol/l have an increased risk of dying at an early age. See also Table S2 for descriptive statistics and demographic data for these four sodium groups.


According to a National Institutes of Health study published in eBiomedicine, adults who stay well-hydrated appear healthier, develop fewer chronic conditions such as heart and lung disease and live longer than those who , who do not get enough fluids.

using health data collected from 11,255 adults over a 30-year periodIn this study, researchers looked at associations between serum sodium levels, which increase when fluid intake is reduced, and various indicators of health. They found that adults with serum sodium levels at the high end of a normal range were more likely to develop chronic disease and show signs of advanced biological aging than those with serum sodium levels in the middle range. Adults with higher levels were also more likely to die at a younger age.

“The results show that a adequate hydration could slow aging and extend life free of disease,” said Natalia Dmitrieva, PhD, a researcher in the Laboratory of Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine at the National Heart, Lung and Blood University (NHLBI), part of the NIH.

The study builds on research by scientists published in March 2022, which found an association between higher ranges of normal serum sodium levels and increased risks of heart failure. Both findings come from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, which included thousands of black and white adults from across the United States. The first ARIC sub-study began in 1987 and has helped researchers better understand the risk factors for heart disease, while shaping clinical guidelines for its treatment and prevention.

For this latest analysis, researchers assessed information that study participants shared during five medical visits: the first two when they were 50 and the last when they were between 70 and 90. To allow a fair comparison between how hydration correlates with health outcomes, the investigators excluded adults who had high serum sodium levels at the baseline screening or those with underlying conditions, such as obesity, that could increase serum sodium. can affect the level of

They then assessed how serum sodium levels related to biological aging, which was assessed through 15 health markers. This included factors such as systolic blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar, which provided information on how well each person’s heart, respiratory, metabolic, kidney and immune systems were functioning. They also adjusted for factors such as age, race, biological sex, smoking status and high blood pressure.

They found that adults with higher levels of normal serum sodium between 135 and 146 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L) were more likely to show signs of accelerated biological aging. This was based on indicators such as metabolic and heart health, lung function and inflammation.

For example, with adults Serum sodium level greater than 142 mEq/L Ranges between 137 and 142 mEq/L were associated with a 10–15% increase in the odds of being biologically older than their chronological age, while levels greater than 144 mEq/L were associated with a 50% increase. were correlated. Similarly, levels of 144.5–146 mEq/L were associated with a 21% increased risk of premature death compared to ranges between 137–142 mEq/L.

Similarly, adults with serum sodium levels greater than 142 mEq/L have up to a 64% increased risk of developing heart failure, stroke, atrial fibrillation and peripheral arterial disease, as well as chronic diseases such as chronic lung disease, diabetes and dementia. There was an increase. , In contrast, adults with serum sodium levels between 138 and 140 mEq/L had the lowest risk of developing chronic disease.

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