According to researchers from the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State University, an influenza vaccine administered through the nose and manufactured with nanoparticles that enhance the immune response provides strong protection against various influenza virus strains.
Intranasal vaccine contributed to multifaceted immune responses, leading to strong cross protection against influenza in mice. The vaccine consists of PEI-HA/CpG nanoparticles. PEI (polyethyleneamine), a robust and versatile delivery system, can simultaneously carry antigens (hemagglutinin, HA) that induce an immune response in the body, and adjuvants (CPGs) that guide the body’s response to an antigen for optimal immunization. Enhances immune response.
These broad immune responses and cross protection were long-lasting, demonstrating protection against influenza virus up to six months after vaccination. The findings are published in the journal ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces.
Intranasal vaccination is an ideal approach for infectious respiratory diseases such as influenza. Seasonal influenza vaccines typically induce narrow immune responses that decrease rapidly, which sensitizes populations to novel influenza strains. Advances in influenza vaccine technology are needed to protect against a wide range of influenza viruses. Intranasal vaccination can improve the local mucosal immune response by preventing influenza infection at the virus’s portal of entry.
In influenza virus, HA is a protein that plays an important role in the early stages of virus infection. Influenza HA has a major area and stalk area. Current influenza vaccines elicit an immune response against the HA head, but this head region is highly variable and is responsible for low efficiency against different strains. The HA stalk region is more conservative in the variety of influenza viruses.
Protein antigens that are administered intranasally are generally less capable of stimulating an immune response, hence the need for adjuvants for highly efficient intranasal vaccines. Adjuvants, such as CpG, can enhance and manipulate immune responses, thus improving the strength and breadth of protection.
“PEI-HA/CpG nanoparticles show good potential as a cross-protective influenza vaccine candidate,” said study corresponding author and professor at the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State, Dr. Baozhong Wang said. “The combination of PEI and CpG in the PEI-HA/CpG nanoparticle group contributed to multifaceted immune responses, leading to vigorous cross protection. Incorporation of CpG and antigen into the same nanoparticle enhances cellular immune responses.”
“Our results showed that the nanoparticles have enhanced HA immunogenicity, or the ability to stimulate an immune response, providing cross protection against different influenza virus strains. The conserved HA stalk region elicited substantial antibodies in the nanoparticle vaccination groups. inspired.”
“The nanoparticle platform has shown interesting features and great potential in the development of next-generation cross-protective influenza vaccines,” said Dr. Chunhong Dong, first author of the study and a postdoctoral fellow at the Institute of Biomedical Sciences. “However, challenges exist for successful research and development of nanoparticle vaccines. Although no apparent adverse effects were observed in the study, a more comprehensive safety evaluation of nanoparticle adjuvant systems is necessary prior to clinical trials.”
Study co-authors include Baozhong Wang, Chunhong Dong (first author), Ye Wang, Wandi Zhu, Yao Ma, Xu Kim, Lai Wei and Gilbert X Gonzalez.
The study was funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) of the National Institutes of Health.
material provided by Georgia State University, Note: Content can be edited for style and length.