Tuesday, March 21, 2023

Kamikaze, a one-word story born of a mistake and ending in disaster

The image of these pilots tying the flag of the rising sun on their foreheads went around the world. It was a symbol of complete surrender before the suicide attacks that created panic among Allied forces during the war in the Pacific. Word suicidal It was on everyone’s tongue… however, the Japanese did not use that name for these pilots, but Toktai () (“Shinup Special Attack Unit”).


A Pilot With The Japanese War Flag On His Head In A Bandana (Japanese

A pilot ties a bandana (in Japanese “hachimaki”) with the Japanese war flag on his head.

Word suicidal Born out of an error, it was a misinterpretation of North American translators during World War II. Kanjiwith one of three Japanese writing systems hiragana And this katakana, The error comes from a misreading of ideologies “God” and “wind”.

During Kublai Khan’s invasion of Japan, a storm destroyed the mighty Mughal fleet which of course would easily defeat the weak Japanese defense. This episode was known as the “Divine Wind” and was taken to be a divine design, the deity would always protect the inhabitants of Japan.

After the Battle of Midway (June 1942), when the American fleet was able to destroy 4 Japanese aircraft carriers, one battleship and 275 aircraft, the American advance was unstoppable and the ability to recover from imperial losses was limited.

American superiority became more noticeable when two years later, on June 20, 1944, the Japanese lost 400 aircraft and their best pilots. The ability to train new pilots was also compromised by a biological fact, Easterners have a higher incidence of myopia and the use of glasses in combat pilots is a limiting factor. In 1939, Dr. Tsutomu Sato (1902–1960) invented a method of cutting and flattening the cornea to reduce myopia. This method was successful at first, but over time it damaged the tissues and led harshly to corneal transplantation. Precisely their first patients were aspiring pilots suffering from myopia and the unit was trained by Minister Hideki TJ for these one-way missions in aircraft whose fuselage was finished with wood, a 250 kg bomb. were equipped with and without sufficient fuel. return to their places.

These soldiers were the culmination of a culture tradition of extreme sacrifice, when the empire was threatened by an invader. dying brilliantly, they became erisThat is, the guardian souls of the country according to the code bushid (?) of loyalty and respect. Many servants of his glory were proud to be enshrined in Santuario de Yasukuni Which lists about 2,100,000 soldiers killed in action.

It is estimated that 3,800 pilots suicidal He died on these missions, killing 8,000 Allied sailors. Only 20% of the Japanese attacks were effective, most of these pilots being killed in vain (though not all historians agree with these figures).

Japan Kamikazes.jpg

Kamikaze, A One-Word Story Born Of A Mistake And Ending In Disaster

was there too caryu (ie submarines with suicide missions), caten (to carry human-guided torpedo explosives to its target – at the cost of its life), boats Shinyo (guided by pilots wishing to die on impact) and fukuryu (Divers were trained to die).

As we see, there were many ways for the emperor to give life. But most terrified of what most distracted the allies, especially because it threatened their aircraft carriers, these pilots were ready to destroy the enemy at the cost of their survival.

The first successful mission took place on June 19, 1944. That day, the Japanese aircraft carrier Chiyoda conducted two suicide attacks, one of which sank the USS Indiana.

Although several strikes were announced, none occurred until October 14, 1944, when the USS Reno was deliberately hit by a Japanese aircraft.

Some historians point to Rear Admiral masafumi arima (1895–1944) as the ideologue of this strategy, who died in the Battle of Leyte Bay when his plane crashed into the USS Franklin aircraft carrier. This fact was publicized by the Japanese media and recorded as the first suicide attack, although, as we said, other missions had a history and it is also unlikely that the Imperial Navy carried such a high ranking. The pilot would have been sent. -They attack.

commander since asaichi tamai (1902–1964) led a group of 23 gangsters as the first organized kamikaze group.

“If anyone asks about this

true soul of japan

I’d say they’ve blossomed like cherry trees

shine with the morning sun

this was the poem moturi norinaga (1730–1801) – the great Japanese classical writer – to describe the spirit of these youths who are ready to lay down their lives for their country. In fact many of these ships had cherry blossoms as a symbol.

During the Battle of Leyte, HMAS Australia was also hit, killing the ship’s Australian captain and Fleet Commander John Collins. USS Kitkun Bay, USS Fanshaw, White Plains, USS St. Low and USS Sangmon, among others, were also attacked.

In the end there was some damage to 7 US aircraft carriers but of the 40 that were hit by the suicide planes, 5 were sunk, 23 suffered major damage and 12 moderate.

Suicide warfare was not only in air-sea combat, but also in air-air confrontations; The Japanese attempted to stop the Flying Fortress bombing Tokyo. To avoid these attacks, the Imperial Mariana formed the 47th Shinten Seku Tai Air Regiment, which was shooting American aircraft directly into the air, to intercept B-29 formations before reaching targets on Japanese land.

The strategy failed because of the defensive superiority and maneuverability of American aircraft.

Attacks against the fleet continued and on 11 March an aircraft suicidal Which had flown about 4,000 km alone collided with the USS Randolph. During the Battle of Okinawa on April 6, 1945, at least 30 American ships were sunk or taken out of action. One of these ships, the destroyer USS Laffy, earned the nickname “The Ship That Will Not Die” after surviving six attacks. suicide bomber,

The last casualty before capitulation was the destroyer USS Callaghan in an attack led by Vice Admiral Matome Ugaki (1890–1945).

While these suicide attacks did not have a significant impact on the Allied air and naval power, the fact of facing this bigotry had a significant psychological effect and, in one way or another, was used by the Americans when deciding to end the war. was taken into account. With the Hiroshima and Nagasaki explosions. President Truman’s advisers calculated that the seizure of Japan included 1,000,000 casualties of Allied forces…

At the time of surrender, the Japanese had 14,000 aircraft ready, ready, or ready to carry out unilateral attacks.

In order to create this sense of patriotic fanaticism, the media created a story praising this spirit with stories of unusual courage or invented actions to encourage these fighters to take an extreme resolution, in which capture It also included not surrendering in case of being committed or ending one’s own life. For this purpose he carried a katana or a Numbo pistol and invited him to follow it. seppuku Or the samurai’s suicide ritual.

Daisetsu Suzuki, en su libro divine Wind, Says, “They attempted to overcome the lack of scientific spirit by applied spiritual and physical force through the kamikaze strategy. The unscientific mindset of the Japanese military was common to the rest of the country. This compensatory strategy was doomed to be suicidal. It was a source of pride, let alone a stain on the people of Japan.”

Nation World News Desk
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