For three years now in Mexico we have had laws and mechanisms to report acts of political violence against women. Recent experience shows that complaints do not always correspond to this type of violence, and therefore: identifying it, punishing it and preventing its recurrence is complex and long.
Clearly identifying whether a behavior or act constitutes political violence against women based on gender (VPRMG) is very important to know if you are a victim, but is especially useful in making the decision. to file a complaint, especially if it is allowed. and especially to avoid such crime again.
The Law, and even jurisprudence, clearly establishes that to ensure this type of work, it can be analyzed from five important points:
1. They are committed against a woman because of being a woman, affecting her differently and unequally;
2. It results in the impairment or cancellation of their political-electoral rights;
3. This happens within the framework of the exercise of said rights;
4. It includes the occurrence of several types of violence (symbolic, verbal, patrimonial, economic, physical, sexual and/or psychological) and
5. They are committed by any person, group of people, member, representative or agent of a political party, media or State. (1)
These keys are what we need to compare with any said situation in the VPMRG and are an obligatory reference for those who experience it, receive complaints or reports, care for victims and very importantly, for the authorities which confirms them and determines the punishments.
These standards should be the obligatory primer of principles for those who aspire or already hold public office, and apparently, for example, among people who are already in the National Registry of Persons Sanctioned for this crime.
The RNPS created by the INE is a list available for public consultation with information on all persons sentenced for the use of political violence against a woman. It includes data such as name, sex, position, relationship to the victim, type of violence, place where the violence occurred, the resolution body, the sanction, reparation measures and even the link to the file.
When reviewing the general statistics of complaints and/or reports presented to the INE by VPMRG (2), it is not surprising that the majority of people who report, are authorized and registered in this register are men, but the majority of people. repeat offenders and Surprisingly, they have some characteristics.
In fact, 81% of people registered with the RNPS are men who work in a political field or position and are repeat offenders. One of them committed acts of violence 11 times (!); three with registration on 3 occasions each and twenty one registered on 2 occasions. There are also recurring women, one of them 4 times; and these cases of recidivism are mainly in Oaxaca, Veracruz, Chiapas and Tabasco (3).
Although there are laws, sanctions and a series of resources and efforts to promote the political-electoral rights of women, parity democracy and a culture without violence; and the fact of being on the public list as criminals is not a positive reference for the present or the future of the trajectories or political aspirations of the people found there. Because of this, it is worth asking: why is it not enough and in the short time that there are mechanisms of reporting and consent, is there a lot of recidivism? Who are these repeat offenders and why do they do it?
As the anthropologist Rita Segato stated, there are men who transgress because they can do so without consequences, reaffirming their commitment to control and rule over other people. In some cases of repeat offenders, a common denominator is that it usually occurs at the municipal level; have positions of power in relation to the victims, and that no significant punishments are imposed on them (4). What is even more serious is that they usually deserve protective measures, that is, a worrying imbalance between the position of danger, affect and isolation for the victims, compared to the lesser punishments for the aggressors.
The case of the person who has reoffended 10 times is prototypical of what we are dealing with, from a town in Veracruz, he violated a hierarchical position 8 times and twice in front of peers; and systematic conduct consists of obstructing the exercise of office at the council level, combined with non-compliance with rulings from the local election court.
In this exemplary case in the worst sense, we see that the position of power, the lack of sanctions and the possible perception that the violence is not committed, are the causes of impunity, recidivism and repetition of violence, especially of symbolic violence, which is often prominent in many cases.
Minimizing or considering as non-violence acts that, subtle or not, is one of the reasons why even with laws and sentences, we can do little. The first step is to adopt the five keys or criteria of what constitutes the VPMRG and the role that symbolic violence can have in a place where women, by participating at any level in the political arena from spaces of interaction, media or in social networks, they are a constant and systematic target of disqualifications or attacks, and be careful: because of their gender, not as opponents, colleagues or any other role.
This misunderstanding of symbolic violence and the various behaviors it embodies is important, and in a society that focuses on an alarming voyeurism of social violence and growing tolerance for the proliferation of influencers, likes, and virals that promote and sell it, Identifying it as such becomes more difficult, affects us all as a society, and even methods for attention, determination, tolerance and non-repetition of this type of violence in general and in particular areas of politics.
Recent experience in the use of mechanisms has put different and urgent steps to follow. Others aim to strengthen the RNPS as the standard to be included in all sentences for these cases; the work done by the militant party to spread and promote men’s awareness of nonviolence, especially at the municipal level and in indigenous regulatory systems; and all actors, electoral authorities and citizens at the federal and local level to continue to give ourselves the knowledge and tools to recognize and know how to act in the face of violence.
Social networks must be at the center of reflection and discussion, with the view that they are real and not virtual spaces, for the exercise of freedom of expression, but without violence and for the benefit of the majority and not numerous and harmful to be anonymous. society.
1. Containing elements of the VPMRG based on the Reform of various laws in 2020 and the jurisprudence thesis 21/2018 of the Superior Chamber of the Electoral Tribunal of the Judicial Branch of the Federation.
2. INE. Report about the reception, attention, processing and resolution of complaints presented to the National Electoral Institute about Political Violence against Women based on Gender. September 23. Pp
3. INE. RNPS. As of August 14, 2023.
4. Most of the punishments imposed by the authority are fines or public reprimands and in the least cases temporary suspension of the rights of the party.