For the Portuguese who was disfigured after breaking up with his king, and who was paralyzed from a wound he had received while fighting the Moors at Azmor, on the Mediterranean coast of Morocco, 1517 was a busy year. Hernando de Magellan, born in Porto, shares his energy in arranging his wedding Beatriz de Barbosa y Calderadaughter of a commander, and in persuading the young Spanish emperor Carlos I of Spain and V of the Holy Roman Empire To re-release the campaign Solis attempted: Access the Moluccas Islands known as the Island of Spices. But the opposite route is known till then.
It was important – to reach royal approval – the financial support of Haro’s Christopher, a banker who financed various campaigns. sailor who had some maps of South America drawn by cosmographers Martin Beham and geographer and cartographer Martin Waldseemüllerdeveloped the project in collaboration with a Portuguese astronomer cotton falero, The dispute between them over who should be the Captain General caused him a lot of trouble.
Five ships were listed: Trinidad, San Antonio, Concepcion, Victoria and Santiago. Among them were divided into 237 men. They sailed from the port of San Lucar de Barrameda and into Tenerife, where they loaded meat, water and firewood, and more men joined. There were 265 in total, a third of them foreigners who had left the Canary Islands on October 3, 1519, which they called Speciaria.
The efforts of the Portuguese and their smear campaign to stop the campaign were in vain.
On his trip to the African coast, there were days and days when the rain didn’t stop. From Sierra Leone he took the “Land of Verzin”, which is now Brazil. As they arrived on 13 December, Magellan called the spot where they landed Santa Lucia, which is now Rio de Janeiro., With the natives of the place he devoted himself to exchange: a hook or knife for half a dozen chickens; Fish for a dozen males, for a comb and a mirror or scissors for geese.
Moving south, he saw a mountain cut in the shape of a hat, which he baptized “Monte Vidi”., He confused the Río de la Plata with the passage of the Pacific, and entered a section of the Uruguay River. They could not interact with the natives because of the extreme distrust shown by them.,
At the border of the Patagonian coast, they passed through Puerto Desedo and found a place to spend the winter in Puerto San Julián. They stayed there for about two months. The Spanish were surprised at the indigenous people they found: they were very tall. Antonio Pigfetta, a historian of the expedition, who kept a detailed diary (“”first trip around the world“), assured that “we were up to her waist” and had huge legs. They called them Patagones.,
On April 1, 1520 – Palm Sunday – a mass was celebrated, the first in Argentine territory. Later Magellan, knowing that a conspiracy was afoot, invited his captains to dinner. Three did not attend: Juan de Cartagena—who was also the supervisor of King Carlos V—, Luis de Mendoza and Gaspar de Quesada., The men had to stand with an authoritarian Magellan who had made no promise to follow the course and who had changed course on more than one occasion without explanation. Provisions were lacking, it was cold and they understood that they were headed for certain death. The only way east for them was the Cape of Good Hope. they will kill him,
Magellan, with a strong personality, managed to put down the rebellion thanks to a group of loyal captains, and to a maneuver in which he managed to deceive the conspirators. There were 40 death sentences that were commuted at the last minute. But he killed Luis de Mendoza and was surrounded by his men; Quesada was beheaded by his own servant and left on the ground in Cartagena with the priest Pedro Sánchez de Reina. The other priests of the campaign were Peter Valderrama,
Among those pardoned was Juan Sebastian Elcano.
In late August he reached the mouth of the Santa Cruz River. Food was scarce and he quenched his hunger by eating mussels. To drink, they melted the ice. In the area they would lose the first ship, the Santiago, when it hit the shore.
21 October He discovered a cape which he baptized as “out of the eleven thousand virgins” where the Strait opens, today of Magellan, which would take them to the South Sea., The navigator had found a way to reach the Spice Islands without passing through the Portuguese domains as determined by the Treaty of Tordesillas.
Magellan sent San Antonio and Concepcion to explore the strait. first party, commanded by Alvaro of the Mosque, Captain General’s nephew revolted. Driver Esteban Gomez He hated Magellan since the king had given him the support he had previously requested. Mosque He was captured and the ship returned to Spain. It is believed that on the return journey he passed through the Falkland Islands.
The sailor did not find out about the rebellion on San Antonio and had a flag with a letter indicating the route they would take, as was the custom. With San Antonio he lost the largest ship and the one that made the most provisions.
He called the strait “Patagonian”. On November 28, 1520, he sailed for the Pacific. The calmness of its waters and its winds caught their attention. But he had other issues to worry about: hunger and thirst. He had not got fresh food for three months. The only thing they had to eat was a kind of biscuit, which had turned to dust and got spoiled. “The cookie smelled like rat urine,” Pigfetta described. The drinking water was yellow.
Some pieces of dry skin were soaked in salt water for four to five days and cooked on coals. Rat meat cost half a ducat.
Some members of the expedition were healthy. Many had died of diseases, including a Patagonian they had brought, and others looked bad.
After several days of sailing, they sighted the two islets, but were unable to land because the indigenous people were sneaking aboard the ship. The skiff – the boat reached the shore – was tied at the stern. Magellan had to disembark with 40 crossbowmen, set fire to houses and canoe, kill seven Indians and retrieve the boat. The Spaniards baptized him in Islas de los Ladrones, today the Mariana Islands.
However, in what played out in the future, the settlers were very friendly, and in that journey they converted many indigenous peoples to Christianity and were able to access valuable shipments of spices and various products.
On 7 April they arrived in Leyte, and the king of Cebu, although initially skeptical, gave them a warm welcome and even agreed to be baptized. When Magellan learned that this king had a dispute with Sailapulapu, king of Mactum, the Portuguese decided to submit to the latter.
They attacked on Saturday, April 27, 1521. He chose that day because it was the day of the saint of his devotion. He went to this king’s island in three boats with 60 men. He landed with 49, while the remaining 11 were left in the care of the boats. The surprise was great: Hundreds of indigenous people were waiting for him armed with arrows and cane spears.
They were still far away when his men began firing from their crossbows, to no avail. He did not heed Magellan’s orders not to fire. Arrows and spears began to rain on them,
He ordered the burning of some houses for the purpose of intimidation, but he managed to make them more furious. When he realized that crossbows were ineffective, he got excited. And they attacked the Spaniards.
A poisoned arrow hit Magellan’s right leg. When he ordered to retreat, his men fled. Stayed with him between six and eight.
The indigenous people shot arrows at their fee
t, as the Spaniards did not wear protection. Magellan and some of his men fell until they were knee-deep in water. The Indians had targeted him.
They were protesting for an hour. Magellan’s helmet had three holes. A native stabbed him in the face with a spear and he managed to kill him. Then his elbow was hit and they all jumped on him. One, with a sort of knife, grievously injured him in the left leg and knocked him down.
Everyone threw it. He signaled his men to run away with his eyes. In what went down in history as the Battle of Mactan, eight Spaniards and four baptized Indians were killed and 25 wounded. The Spanish claimed, without luck, the body of their chief.
Spanish appointed Duarte Barbosa At the head of the expedition, who made the terrible mistake of accepting an invitation from the King of Cebu, and was killed along with his companions.
At that time, there were only three men in the caravel Conception and it was set ablaze. The men were divided between two ships. They continued sailing through various islands to Borneo. But the Spaniards had to leave in a hurry as the king intended to deceive and kill them. They were kidnapping indigenous people and demanded peace, food and spices as ransom.
On November 8, 1521, they arrived at the port of Tidor in the Moluccas. gonzalo gomezo was the captain general of the campaign, while Juan Sebastian Elcano -Who started out as Master of Conception- was the captain of Victoria.
They left for Europe on 18 December with warehouses laden with spices., But Trinidad, as it was leaking, decided to return to the east for repairs. It would fall into the hands of the Portuguese and the crew experienced a horrific odyssey.
Meanwhile, in January 1522, Elcano had to put up a rebellion and two of its leaders fled to the island of Timor., Navigation continued through the Indian Ocean and on 16 May she circled the Cape of Good Hope. They did not touch any port and the people had only rice and a minimum amount of water. Then about 25 people died.
In Cape Verde, Elcano sent a group to bring supplies. When the Portuguese learned that they came from the Moluccas, a Portuguese domain, they did not let them back. Elcano continued the journey with 20 men, two of whom would die. They arrived in Spain on September 6, 1522, the next day the ship entered San Lucar de Barrameda. Towed, it went from Guadalquivir to Seville. He traveled 14,460 leagues.
Weeks later, the imprisoned men arrived in Cape Verde. And the five survivors of the Trinity did it until 1525 or 1526.
On the day of arrival, people crowded the port. Elcano and his men wore torn clothes, they were weak, lying on the deck. The next day, more spare parts, they fulfilled their promise if they arrived alive: barefoot, they went in procession to the Cathedral of Seville with candles in their hands to pray to the Virgin Santa Maria de la Antigua, thanking her To return with life to give and to go around the world to tell him that the impossible was possible.