Wednesday, September 28, 2022

Nerve stimulation promotes resolution of inflammation – Nation World News

summary: Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve promotes healing in people with acute inflammation by shifting the balance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory molecules.

Source: Karolinska Institute

The nervous system is known to communicate with the immune system and control inflammation in the body. Researchers from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden now show how electrical activation of a specific nerve can promote healing in acute inflammation.

The discovery, which is published in the journal PNASOpens up new ways to accelerate the resolution of inflammation.

The way in which the body regulates inflammation is only partially understood. Previous research by Peder Olofsson’s group at the Karolinska Institutet and other research groups has shown that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve can reduce inflammation.

This type of nerve stimulation has been used with encouraging results in clinical studies of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. However, how nerve signals control the active resolution of inflammation was unclear.

“We have now studied the effects of signals between nerves and immune cells at the molecular level,” said April S. Karavaka, a researcher in Peder Olofsson’s group at the Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet and the Stockholm Center for Bioelectronic Medicine, MedTechLabs. ,

“A better understanding of these mechanisms will allow for more precise applications of what the nervous system uses to control inflammation.”

The researchers showed that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve in inflammation alters the balance between inflammation and specialized anti-inflammatory molecules, which promotes healing.

“Inflammation and its resolution play an important role in a wide range of common diseases, including autoimmune diseases and cardiovascular diseases,” says Peder Olofsson.

“Our findings provide insight into how the nervous system may accelerate the resolution of inflammation by activating defined signaling pathways.”

It shows the profile of a person
Researchers will continue to study how nerves control the healing of inflammation in more detail. Image is in public domain

Researchers will continue to study how nerves control the healing of inflammation in more detail.

“The vagus nerve is one of many nerves that control the immune system. We will continue to map the network of nerves that control inflammation at the molecular level and study how these signals are involved in the development of the disease,” Dr. Olofsson says.

“We hope this research will provide a better understanding of how pathological inflammation may resolve, and contribute to more effective treatment of, many inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis and arthritis.”

Financing: The study was supported by grants from the Knut and Ellis Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Research Council, the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, MedTechLabs and Novo Nordisk. Peder Olofsson holds shares in Emune AB. Co-author Jesmond Dalli is Founder and Head of Research at Resolomics Ltd.

About this brain stimulation and inflammation research news

Author: Press Office
Source: Karolinska Institute
contact: Press Office – Karolinska Institutet
image: Image is in public domain

Basic Research: closed access.
“Vagus nerve stimulation promotes resolution of inflammation by a mechanism that involves alox15 and requires the α7nAChR subunit” by April S. Caravaka et al. PNAS


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Vagus nerve stimulation promotes resolution of inflammation by a mechanism that involves Alox15 and requires the α7nAChR subunit

Non-resolving inflammation underlies a range of chronic inflammatory diseases, and therapeutic acceleration of resolution of inflammation may improve outcomes.

Nerve reflexes control the intensity of inflammation (for example, through signals in the vagus nerve), but whether activation of the vagus nerve promotes resolution of inflammation in vivo is unknown.

To investigate this, rats were subjected to electrical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) or sham surgery at the cervical level, followed by zymosan-induced peritonitis.

The duration of resolution of inflammation was significantly reduced and phaerocytosis was significantly increased in mice treated with VNS compared to sham. Lipid mediator (LM) metabolomics revealed that rats treated with VNS had significantly higher levels of specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) in peritoneal exudates from omega-3 docosahexaenoic (DHA) and docosapentaenoic (n-3 DPA) metabolites. Were.

VNS also shifted the ratio between proinflammatory and proresolving LMs towards a proresolving profile, but this effect by VNS was reversed in mice lacking 12/15-lipoxygenase (alox15), a key factor in this SPM biosynthesis. is enzyme.

The significant VNS-mediated reduction of neutrophil numbers in peritoneal exudates was absent in rats in the cholinergic α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit (α7nAChR), an essential component of the inflammatory reflex.

Thus, VNS increased local levels of SPM and accelerated resolution of inflammation in zymosan-induced peritonitis by a mechanism that involves Alox15 and requires the α7nAChR.

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