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The Nobel Prize in Economics was awarded to the American economist Claudia Goldin for helping to understand the role of women in the labor market.

The Harvard professor was awarded “for his contribution to improving our understanding of women’s outcomes in the labor market,” according to the jury of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Goldin is the third woman to receive the award, after the American Elinor Ostrom (2009) and the French Esther Duflo (2019).

“Understanding the role of women in the labor market is important for society. Thanks to Claudia Goldin’s pioneering research, we now know more about the underlying causes and what obstacles need to be addressed in the future ,” said Jakob Svensson, Chair of the Economic Sciences Prize Committee.

Goldin’s research covers a wide range of topics, including the female workforce, the gender income gap, income inequality, technological change, education, and immigration. Her book “Career & Family: Women’s Century-Long Journey toward Equity” was published on October 5, 2021.

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The 77-year-old researcher was “surprised and very happy” to learn that he had been awarded, said Hans Ellegren, secretary general of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

According to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Claudia Goldin has shown that the participation of women in the labor market has not changed over a period of 200 years, but forms a U-shaped curve.

“The participation of married women decreased with the transition from an agrarian to an industrial society in the early 19th century, but then began to increase with the development of the service sector in the early 20th century. “Goldin explains this pattern as a result of structural change and changing social norms regarding women’s responsibilities in the home and family,” the committee said in a statement.

“During the 20th century, women’s education levels continued to rise, and in most high-income countries they are now significantly higher than men’s,” he added. “Claudia Goldin shows that access to the birth control pill played an important role in facilitating this revolutionary change by offering new career planning opportunities.”

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Goldin conducted her research as co-director of the Gender in Economics Study Group at the US National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) and director of the NBER’s Development of the American Economy program from 1989 to 2017.

He was also the president of the American Economic Association in the 2013-14 academic year. In 1990, Goldin became the first woman to hold tenure in Harvard’s economics department.

The economics prize was created in 1968 by the Central Bank of Sweden and is formally known as the Bank of Sweden Prize for Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.

Last year’s winners were Ben Bernanke, former Chairman of the Federal Reserve, Douglas W. Diamond and Philip Dybvig, for their investigations into bank failures, which helped shape the aggressive US response to the crisis in fiscal year 2007-2008. .

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Only two of the 92 previous honorees were women.

The prize follows those for medicine, physics, chemistry, literature and peace, which were announced last week.

A week ago, the Hungarian-American Katalin Karikó and the American Drew Weissman won the Nobel Prize in Medicine. The Physics prize was awarded on Tuesday to the French-Swedish physicist Anne L’Huillier, the French scientist Pierre Agostini and the Hungarian Ferenc Krausz.

American scientists Moungi Bawendi, Louis Brus and Alexei Ekimov won the Chemistry prize on Wednesday. They were followed by the Norwegian writer Jon Fosse, who won the literary prize. And on Friday, imprisoned Iranian activist Narges Mohammadi won the peace prize.

The awards are presented in December in Oslo and Stockholm. They were awarded 11 million Swedish crowns (about one million dollars). The winners will also receive an 18-karat gold medal and a diploma.