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Monday, December 05, 2022

Porifera: Definition, Characteristics and Classification

Jakarta ,

Have you ever heard of animals belonging to the phylum Porifera? Yes, sponge is commonly known as sponge (sponge) is an animal that lives mostly in shallow water, in the sea and also in fresh water. This animal is the inspiration for the character of Sponge Bob Spongebob Squarepants,

Most sponges live attached to a variety of substrates, such as rocks, shell fragments, and coral on the ocean floor. In addition, these sponges are heavily dependent on particles suspended in water as their food.

Porifera are the most primitive multicellular animals because no cell differentiation has been found so that their bodies resemble protozoan colonies in some ways, as cited Basic Module of Classification of Invertebrates Sundovo by Harminto and Vishnu Vardhan.

Unlike most multicellular animals, sponges do not have specialized organs for reproduction, digestion, respiration, sensory or excretion. Porifera are parazoans whose organization occurs only at the cellular level.

Porifera are generally asymmetrical, while some other species exhibit radial symmetry. Porifera can reach a size of 0.9 m with bright colors, are white, green, yellow, purple and orange. Green sponges are usually caused by the presence of symbiotic algae in their bodies called zoochlorella,

To recognize sponges, you can understand their morphology or body shape. Following are the characteristics of sponges based on their morphology:

  • The shape is like a vase or sack with a cavity in its body called the spongocelum and the mouth of the sack called the osculum.
  • In simple sponges, the walls of the spongosol cavity consist of funneled and flagellated cells called koanocytes.
  • Porifera have small pores in the body wall like ostium
  • Coanocytes are cells that act as triggers for the flow of water from outside into the body, capture food particles, and capture incoming spermatozoa for fertilization.
  • There are spicules that vary in size depending on the species, some being needle-shaped (monoxones), stars, three-bladed (triaxons), four-branched stars (tetraxons) or multi-branched stars (polyaxons). .

Porifera classification

derive from Encyclopdia BritannicaThere are three classifications of sponges:

1. Calcarea

The class Calcarea has skeletal features of calcium carbonate spicules, small vase-shaped structures, thin tubes in loose networks or large irregular colonies, mostly small in size, ranging from tidal zones to depths of 200 m. Live in shallow water in all oceans. up to 800 meters. There are about 300 species of this class.

2. Demospongia

Demospongia consists of a skeleton of silica spicules, spongin fibers, or both. In some primitive species, this class has no skeleton.

The Demospongiae are the most abundant and widespread group of sponges in the ocean, ranging from intertidal zones to depths of about 5,500 m. The phylum Demospongiae has about 4,200 species.

Species of this class have a very diverse shape and size, some are thin crust-like with a diameter of only a few cm, some in the form of large cakes with a diameter of 2 m. type of carnivore (cladorizid sponge) There is no water flow system.

3. Hexactinellida

Finally, there is a classification of Hexaactinellida that are commonly known as glass sponges (glass sponge) because the spicules are made of silica. The spicules are four or six branched and are attached to cylindrical and conical skeletons.

Hexactinellida ranges in height from 10–30 cm in the sea at depths of 25 m – 8,500 m. These animals cling firmly to hard surfaces, with some species resting on soft-bottomed sediments.

Well, this is the characteristics of sponges and their complete classification. Happy learning, dieters!

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