Taking care of gut health, and more specifically the microbiota, provides many health benefits, as the intestinal tract is the largest organ of the immune system. A healthy diet helps maintain the balance of bacteria. why Some foods contain ingredients such as resistant starch, which act as prebiotics and nourish this microflora.
In the last century, it was thought that starch, an important source of energy in the human diet, was completely digested in the small intestine, but it has been shown that a (variable) portion is resistant to digestive enzymes. Hence the name resistant starch: “It is the total amount of starch and its breakdown products that resist digestion in the small intestine, remaining almost intact until the large intestine,” explains nutritionist Maite Ibáñez, dietitian-nutritionist of the Commission of Health. Defines a member. The Valencian Community (CODiNuCoVa).
Experts explain the process by which resistant starch is formed: “Starch is made up of two different components, amylose and amylopectin, which have different functions and properties. when you have The higher ratio of amylose to amylopectin results in a more compact structure that is less susceptible to digestion by gastrointestinal enzymes, Give rise to what we call resistant starch.
Thus, it is similar to insoluble fiber, although they are not the same. Ibanez highlights the benefits of this botanical ingredient as a prebiotic: “As fermented by the intestinal microbiota, it produces short-chain fatty acids, which have been shown to be so important as anti-inflammatory. Besides, Promotes the growth of beneficial microorganisms for good health, in favor of eubiosis, a concept in opposition to dysbiosis, which is associated with disease”.
In addition to preventing dysbiosis (an imbalance of microorganisms in the intestinal flora), “health agencies recommend it to prevent diseases related to malnutrition, such as obesity, overweight, diabetes, constipation, heart disease and heart disease.” Metabolic syndrome”, List Ibanez.
Regarding the health benefits that this carbohydrate provides, nutritionists highlight the decrease in the level of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. It also supports intestinal absorption of certain minerals. and its satisfying power and Its ability to help burn fat first and then carbohydrates and protein has been shown to be effective in weight loss.
“Resistant starch is important because research on resistant starch showed a correlation between the regulation of blood sugar and insulin levels after meals, at the same time as speeding up the breakdown of carbohydrates during digestion and improving gastrointestinal system function Is. ”, specifies the nutritionist.
foods containing resistant starch and types
Although there are supplements of resistant starch, it is found naturally in these foods, explains nutritionists.
- green banana).
- Cereal grains and derivatives.
- Tubers (potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava…).
within resistant starch we can find five types, depending on what’s the mechanism that makes it resistant, Ibanez Comments:
- Type 1 Resistant Starch: It is composed of starch that is physically indigestible, i.e. starch in plant cells with very thick walls that prevent degradation by preparation and stomach acid. It can be found in legumes and some grains.
- Type 2 Resistant Starch: In this case what is resistant to decomposition are the starch grains themselves, the very compact structure of the grain preventing access to digestive enzymes. This type of resistant starch can be found especially in green bananas.
- Type 3 Resistant Starch: starch is Which we also call retrograde. It is formed when starch is processed, for example by cooking and cooling. It will oscillate back and forth due to the many heating and cooling cycles. It is completely resistant to digestion and the enzymes involved.
This type is most beneficial to the microbiota, because when cooked and then cooled (at least 24 hours in the fridge), the starch changes its structure, becoming more gelatinous and becoming a type of fiber. that is not absorbed, which favors the prebiotic effect.
- Resistant Starch Type 4: It is chemically modified starch. In this, a chemical process is applied that reorganizes the starch and makes it inaccessible for digestion. It is mainly used in the food industry to improve the technical and sensory characteristics of food.
- Resistant Starch Type 5: It is a starch formed by complexes of fat and amylose. It can be formed during the cooking of certain foods such as bread that contain fat or artificially.
Contraindications of Resistant Starch
CODiNuCoVa Nutritionists point out that resistant starch has some contraindications. between them, Its consumption should be considered in people with bacterial overgrowth, Also known as SIB. Furthermore, despite the fact that fiber was considered contraindicated for intestinal inflammation, “with a correct incorporation as directed by a professional, it also benefits the remission of outbreaks and the reduction of inflammation and resulting injury.” could.”