Friday, December 09, 2022

Scientists take yet another theoretical step to uncover mystery of dark matter, black holes

Much of the matter in the universe remains unknown and undefined, yet theoretical physicists continue to gain clues about the properties of dark matter and black holes. A study by a team of scientists, including three from Stony Brook University, proposes a new method for discovering new particles that are not currently included in the Standard Model of particle physics. His method, published in nature communication may shed light on the nature of dark matter.

The three Stony Brook authors include Ruwen Essig, PhD, professor at the CN Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics (YITP); Rosalba Perna, PhD, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Peizhi Du, PhD, postdoctoral researcher at YITP.

Stars passing close to the supermassive black holes at the center of galaxies can be disrupted by tidal forces, causing flares that are seen in sky surveys as bright transient events. The rate at which these events occur depends on the black hole’s spin, which can be influenced by ultra-light bosons (hypothetical particles with minute masses) caused by superradiation. The research team conducted a detailed analysis of these effects, and they found that stellar tidal-disruption discoveries have the potential to uncover the existence of ultra-light bosons.

According to co-author Rouven Essig, the team demonstrated that due to the dependence of the stellar disruption rate on the spin of a black hole, and noting that ultra-light bosons uniquely affect such spin due to superradiant instability, stellar Tidal disruption rate measurements can be used to investigate these new particles.

Additionally, the researchers suggest that these data, in conjunction with the researchers’ work, with the vast dataset of stellar tidal disruptions provided by the Vera Rubin Observatory, can be used widely to discover or rule out a variety of ultra-light boson models. can be done for. Area of ​​parameter space.

Their analysis also indicates that measurements of the stellar tidal disruption rate can be used to constrain a variety of supermassive black hole spin distributions and determine whether the maximum spin is preferred.

“The potential implications of our findings are profound. The discovery of new ultra-light bosons in stellar tidal disruption surveys will be revolutionary for fundamental physics,” says Essig.

“These new particles could be dark matter, and thus the work could open windows into a complex dark field that points to more fundamental details of nature, such as string theory. Our proposal may have other applications, as black Measurements of supermassive black hole spin can be used to study the hole’s formation history,” says Rosalba Perna.

“And ultimately, if these new particles are present, they will affect how stars approaching a supermassive black hole are constrained by the black hole’s strong gravitational pull,” Pezzi says.

The Stony Brook team worked with Dr. Daniel Igana-Ugrinovic, a postdoctoral researcher at the Perimeter Institute and Dr. Giacomo Fragione, a research assistant professor at Northwestern University.

The Stony Brook research component was supported by the Department of Energy (grant number DE-SC0009854), the Simons Foundation (Simons Investigator in Physics Award 623940), the National Science Foundation (awards PHY-1915093 and AST-2006839), and the National Science Foundation (Award PHY-1915093 and AST-2006839). US-Israel Binational Science Foundation (Grant No. 2016153).

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