Wednesday, February 1, 2023

Successful trial of an artificial pancreas in type 2 diabetics

Researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK have successfully tested an artificial pancreas that could serve as a treatment for some people with type 2 diabetes.
The device operates by an algorithm that was developed by scientists. They showed that after using the device, the time patients with high blood sugar levels halved and the amount of time they stayed in the glucose target range increased.
Diabetes is the result of a lack of insulin or a lack of its action. Insulin is a hormone that regulates the glucose (which is a type of sugar) and hence the energy of the cells.
In type 1 diabetes, the body stops making insulin. Whereas in type 2 diabetes, the cells become less sensitive to insulin, which contributes to increased blood sugar levels. Diabetes is a disease that affects health in many ways.
Often the signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes develop slowly. In fact, you may have had diabetes for years without knowing it. Some of its symptoms are increased thirst, frequent urination, increased appetite, unintentional weight loss, fatigue, blurred vision, slow-healing wounds, numbness or tingling in hands or feet, etc.
If a doctor is consulted and there is access to comprehensive treatment, the risk of complications of diabetes is reduced. Currently, 415 million people in the world have type 2 diabetes. This prevalence represents an annual health expenditure of $760,000 million.
Type 2 diabetes causes blood glucose—sugar levels to be too high—and is treated with lifestyle changes—a better diet and more exercise, for example—and medication, which aims to lower glucose levels. have to keep.
The Cambridge group of researchers sought to develop another treatment option. The artificial pancreas is a device that combines a conventional glucose monitor and insulin pump with an app developed by the team.
It’s run by an algorithm that predicts how much insulin is needed to keep glucose levels in a target range. The results of the study conducted by the scientists were published in the journal Nature Medicine.
Researchers from the Wellcome MRC Institute of Metabolic Sciences at the University of Cambridge developed an artificial pancreas to help patients maintain normal glucose levels.
The system combines an insulin pump and glucose monitor with an app created by the team called CamApps HX.
In 2014, researchers from the University of Montreal in Canada presented the results of a clinical trial with another artificial pancreas in type 1 diabetes patients, which were published at the time in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology journal.
The Cambridge researchers also previously showed that people with type 1 diabetes, from adults to very young children, could also benefit from an artificial pancreas controlled by a similar algorithm. They also successfully tested the device in people with type 2 diabetes who needed kidney dialysis.
The results of a preliminary study of the device in a wider population of people with type 2 diabetes were presented in the scientific journal. This new version of the artificial pancreas for type 2 diabetes is a completely closed-loop system.
“Completely closed-loop insulin administration in people with type 2 diabetes may improve glycemic control without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia over an 8-week period of unrestricted life compared to standard insulin therapy,” the researchers said.
For the study, they recruited 26 patients from the Wolfson Clinic of Diabetes and Endocrinology at Addenbrooke’s Hospital. The researchers evaluated the functioning of the artificial pancreas using several metrics. The first was the percentage of time patients’ blood glucose levels were within the desired range of 3.9 to 10.0 mmol of sugar per liter.
On average, patients using the artificial pancreas spent 66% of the time within the desired range, compared to 32% of patients receiving controls.
The time spent with blood glucose levels greater than 10.0 mmol of sugar per liter was a secondary indicator. Chronically elevated glucose levels increase the potential for life-threatening consequences.
Two-thirds (67%) of the time there was an increase in blood glucose levels in patients receiving the control drug; However, when an artificial pancreas was used, this figure was reduced by half to 33%.

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