The 4 Main Parts of Roots and Their Functions

4 Bagian Utama Akar dan Fungsinya – Roots are usually the underground part of the plant body that help it attach to the soil and absorb water and minerals from the soil.

Roots are sometimes deformed and modified to store food stores found in sweet potato, radish and carrot plants. They are also modified for respiration (eg, roots of mangrove trees), and additional support (eg, aerial roots of banyan trees).

Origin and Development

The developing embryo or root is the first part to emerge from the seed during its germination, which then forms shape primer either roots Plant. The primary root then further divides to form akar sekunder Wants tertiary And hair root To complete the root system.

What are the main parts of the root system of a plant?

The root system of a typical plant consists of four distinct sections or regions: 1) Root cover part , 2) cell division zone or meristem zone, 3) elongation zone, And 4) Zone of maturity or differentiation. Each root zone performs a specific function. Except for the root cap, the other three regions are collectively known as the ‘root tip region’.

part of a root
root part

1 part root cover

The tip of the root is protected by a multicellular (more than one cell) structure called the root cap. The cells of the root cap are always in a state of division, so as the roots enter the soil, they are constantly renewing and increasing in number.


  • Brings water and minerals from soil
  • Protects the sensitive tissue growing in the roots
  • Secretes thick mucus that helps the roots penetrate the soil
  • communication with soil microorganisms

Root caps are absent in some aquatic and parasitic plants, where they are replaced by more specialized structures called root pockets. They also lack the protective function of a root cap and the ability to divide.

2 part cell division (meristem)

It is located a few millimeters above the root cap. The cells of the meristem zone are usually small, thin-walled, and contain dense protoplasm. The meristem cells have three layers: i) the dermis – the outermost layer, ii) the pleromium – the middle layer, and iii) the peribellum – the innermost layer.


  • Carry out cell division to produce new cells for root development
  • helps in root elongation

3 segment extension

It is located next to the meristematic region. They are not capable of cell division.


  • Helps increase the length and size of root cells that have lost their ability to reproduce.
  • Helps absorb water and minerals from the soil

4 parts of maturity or differentiation

Situated next to the elongation zone, it is also called the piliferous zone. They develop as cells of the elongation zone and differentiate and mature into specialized tissues such as root hairs, endodermis and cortex.


  • Keeps plants and trees attached to the ground
  • Root hairs form specialized tissues such as xylem and phloem that aid in the absorption and conduction of water and minerals from the soil.