Saturday, January 28, 2023

The first female professor was a professor in Lyon

Remembering Mario Vargas Llosa and his character Zavalita in ‘Conversation in the Cathedral’, Secundino Serrano wonders when León turned bad. And he himself answers: when the coup d’état of 1936 and the Franco dictatorship that followed, “a degenerate regime that wiped out the most positive and advanced aspects of León, to make way again for the caciques, soldiers and clergy who had patted general advantage”. One thing is certain, that the dictatorship adopted secularism as a principle of coexistence and promoted education especially in the Second Republic as a factor of social progress. Its consequences are still hanging.

The quote is relevant if we talk about education and teaching in those years. The institute’s elite body of professors was born in the 19th century and maintained its male exclusivity until 1910, despite the fact that its ranks date from 1861, a body of teachers created in the image and likeness of the university, in opposition to its own with. State level since 1847. But growing up, something changed when, at only 26 years old, a woman entered the classes of the Normal and Technical Institute of Castellón. It was May 18, 1923 and she was ready to take up the chair of Latin that she had won over the property in previous protests. Her name is María Luisa García-Dorado Cerullo, a graduate from Salamanca with a degree in Philosophy and Letters, who stood as the first professor of the Institute of Spain. Its exceptionalism was favored because 13 years earlier, the head of government, the Count of Romanones, had lifted the ban on women’s access to the university. To complete the journey, in 1953 Angeles became the first professor of Gallino Carrillo University. Emilia Pardo Bazan was at the Central University in 1916, but not by protest but by literary merit.

In 1928 María Luisa García-Dorado arrived at the León Institute by transfer, obviously with the intention of being closer to her homeland. But he did not seek or find accommodation in this city… With a restless temperament, he joined the Infanta Beatriz Institute in Madrid in the 1929/30 academic year, where he held the chair of Latin on an interim basis. His main concern was always the methodology and pedagogy of Latin teaching, although his ownership of the place remained in Lyon. From October 1933 to June 1936 he was on commission at the Institute-School in Valencia, during which years he traveled and expanded his knowledge of Latin teaching methods in France, Italy and England. It was an institution of an academic nature and an advanced program, the ultimate objective of which was to train teachers and then to disseminate the educational model experienced there, a reformist method that applied the most advanced teaching principles. In those years the life of this professor became a continuous journey. He completed his doctoral studies at the Central University of Madrid, which became part of its Institute-School in 1918 and was housed in the Residencia de Senoritas. This was the female version of the student residence, which included Falla, Alberti, León Felipe, Lorca, Dalí and Buñuel. There she had the opportunity to study for 2 years in America, especially for women, at the Bryn Mawr University of Pennsylvania, in a scholarship exchange program with universities in that country, which included Latin philosophical studies and various education courses, including One includes his work entitled Methodology of Latin, his favorite subject of study.

a learned woman

She was the daughter of Professor of Criminal Law at the University of Salamanca Pedro García-Dorado Monteiro, a contemporary and friend of Unamuno, with whom he came to dispute the position of rector. Was she a generous woman? We know that in July 1925 he spent the summer in his father’s town of Navacarros, at which time he participated with an article in El Estudiante magazine, the organ of expression for intellectuals and students against the Primo de Rivera dictatorship. At that time Unmuno was exiled and freedom of expression was curtailed. Despite adopting a critical tone, Luisa was still suspicious of what was coming her way. On July 18, 1936, he was in Salamanca, probably enjoying his summer vacation. In those days the world turned upside down. His brother Pedro was assassinated in Ávila, where he held the post of provincial head of health. A rectification file was immediately opened for the professor “since he is known to be a person with leftist views, there is no data to support such a statement” (Lira Felix, 2020). After this, the chain of events was not taking the name of stopping. She was appointed to the rectory of the university, where she went on 14 September, with pantomime offering her the support of the national movement. That gesture—perhaps, his last name—may have reassured officials on the rebel side, as he once again received a salary as a member of the Leoni Center, until October 28, 1936, when he was suspended from employment and pay. was given . She would also spend a month in jail between February and March 1937. She was not the only respondent on the staff of the Lyon Institute, much less in the provincial education sector. In the BOE of November 21, 1936, 11 professors of the Superior Veterinary School, 6 professors of the León Normal School of Teaching, 9 inspectors were suspended from activity in the province of León, located in Burgos. of first education, 1 professor from the Superior School of Commerce, 5 professors from the National Institute of León, 4 from the Primary Institute of Astorga and 4 professors from Ponferrada. María Luisa García-Dorado was one of the Repressed Five in its center, along with the likes of Hugo Miranda Tuya, Manuel Santamaría Andrés, Hipólito Romero Flores, and Julia Moros Sarda, a teacher worth noting. We know that from the firing squad to the subsequent consecration, they faced different destinies.

a leftist teacher

In the academic file we have about this woman, it appears that she was a “leftist”, adding immediately that “her professional and religious conduct is good (was) not abiding by Marxist government.” Reports emanating from the center did not carry weight in her defense as the Purge File noted an anti-religious attitude and her affiliation with the Union Republicans, thus linking her to the Popular Front bloc, highly criticized by the new regime. It was a tortured situation. Perhaps their militancy did not go beyond being merely nominal, without any specific function. In fact, and after various difficulties, it was incorporated back into the education system after the end of the Civil War.

On January 29, 1941, he was confirmed as Professor of Latin at the Lyon Institute, but disqualified from management and trust positions. He then requested clarification from the General Directorate of Debt and Inactive Classes as to whether he should have paid quotas for his inactive rights during the period he was suspended from employment and pay, as he had only been employed for several months. 50% payroll was received. It did not take long for the retrospective payments to be caught, the final step in definitively resolving the rectification file (BOE 23-May-1941).

your stay in leon

He remained in his teaching work and practiced in Lyon for eight more years, albeit with a low profile of prominence, as he rarely appears in minutes and academic events: he has no relevance in the commemorative acts of the centenary of the center in 1946. Not there. When he was called Padre Isla. For him, these must have been years of academic winter and personal disappointment, which led him to request an exchange in April 1949 with the intention of going to the National Institute of Alicante, which was granted shortly afterwards. Day. When he left Leon, he was in the third class of professorship with an annual salary of 20,000 pesetas.

Maria Luisa was a clear example of how the reformist spirit in education disappeared in the country, crushed by personal and professional repression. His companion and colleague, Manuel Santamaría, had left his blood splattered on the slopes of Puente Castro. Buried several decades ago among disciplinary proceedings, purges, prisons and executions was a rising lion, the enlightened and reformist spirit of Azcarate, the Economic Society of Friends of the Country, the Institut Libre de Ensenza, the Sierra Pemble Foundation and teachers. / Sincere and committed to the cultural and social change that was delayed for half a century.

This pioneer retired to the Mediterranean and died in 1965. Today, a medallion with her face is displayed in the cloister of the Hospederia Fonseca in Salamanca, as part of a project that seeks to save prodigal women from collective amnesia. Rosa Monteiro writes that the biographies are anonymous navigation charts; It should be added that some of them have been battered by a storm of causelessness.

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