Tuesday, October 4, 2022

Tissue-engaged immune cells provide unique protection against pathogens and cancer: a new atlas of tissue-resident memory T cells offer hope for new therapies based on protective ‘first responders’.

Researchers have gained ground in understanding the unique immune cells equipped to remember the identity of malicious invaders. Researchers have developed a new atlas that describes tissue-resident memory T cells in various tissue settings, leading to the development of immune defense strategies to enhance immunity at sites most vulnerable to infection.

Scientists have discovered how our immune system responds to pathogens and cancer, turning their attention to CD8, T cells, which are deployed in response to infections and malignancies and are equipped to remember the identity of malicious invaders.

While some of these important “memory” cells circulate throughout the body, others are known to enter as part of a long-standing defense system to protect entry sites within body parts. A new study led by biologists at the University of California San Diego provides new insights on these specialized cells, called CD8, Tissue-resident memory T cells. published on 27th June Nature Immunology, the study is led by postdoctoral scholars Max Hague and John Kroll (now a scientist at OutSpace Bio) in the laboratory of Professor Anand Goldrath in UC San Diego’s School of Biological Sciences and provides a framework for understanding how tissue How do resident memory T cells adapt to the different? tissue environment. Researchers have developed a new atlas that describes tissue-resident memory T cells in various tissue settings, leading to the development of immune defense strategies to enhance immunity at sites most vulnerable to infection.

“By identifying the unique transcriptional pathways and regulators of tissue-resident memory T cells, we can discover novel targets that inform the strategic design of vaccines to provide the greatest protection among ‘first responders’ in tissues.” where pathogens and tumors begin their expansion.” Goldrath, who holds the Tata Chancellor’s Endowed Professorship in the Department of Molecular Biology.

While many studies have examined memory cells as they either proliferate or become trapped in organ tissue, little was known about the role of the surrounding tissue environment in this process. When an infection occurs, the immune system activates CD8, T cells and directs them into infected tissues to survey the cells for pathogens. Once the infection is cleared, the number of pathogen-specific CD8, T cells decline, but a small number of cells remain as a sort of long-term sentry system to bolster immunity against future infections.

The new study examined tissue-resident memory T cells residing in mouse organs such as the kidney, spleen, small intestine and liver. The collective results of these disparate tissue environments generated insight into how each T cell population is governed by unique processes based on the “tissue of residence”.

Finally, the scientists raise the possibility that future extensions of this research may come in the form of customized engineered therapies: “… these findings collectively raise the possibility of ‘programming’ tissue-tailored immune responses, where Immune cells that can promote or control inflammation must be transcriptionally engineered to be trafficked, retained, and function within a particular tissue.”

co-author of Nature Immunology The studies are: John Kroll, Maximilian Heig, Amir Ferry, Justin Milner, Kayla Omilusic, Clara Toma, Zhaoren He, John Chang and Anand Goldrath.

Story Source:

material provided by University of California – San Diego, Original written by Mario Aguilera. Note: Content can be edited for style and length.

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