By Maggie Fox | CNN
A two-dose version of Johnson & Johnson’s coronavirus vaccine provides 94% protection against notable infections, the company said Tuesday – creating a two-dose system of J&J’s Janssen vaccine that is comparable to Modern or Pfizer’s two-dose method.
Plus, the company says, adding a booster dose to a single shot of the vaccine boosts immunity and people should be strongly protected against infection.
The company published some details of three studies looking at different aspects of its Janssen vaccine and said that together they have shown that the vaccine provides long-lasting protection that can be enhanced with additional shots.
“Our large real-world evidence and P-level research confirms that a single shot provides strong and long-lasting protection against Johnson & Johnson Vaccine Covid-1-related hospitalization,” said Matt Mathai Mamen, Global Head of Janssen Research and Development. , Said in a statement.
“Our single-shot vaccine builds a strong immune response and long-lasting immune memory. And, when Johnson & Johnson is given a booster of the Covid-1 vaccine, the defense against Covid-1 is further enhanced.
The Johnson & Johnson single-dose vaccine was approved for emergency use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on February 27. According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it is about 1.8. Millions have been given to Americans.
The company’s ongoing second-stage two-dose system trial found that two doses of 56 doses provided 100% protection against severe Covid-1 against and 94% protection against moderate to severe Covid-1 in the United States. Globally, the two-dose method provides 5% protection against moderate to severe Covid-1, the company said.
A second study showed that people had a 12-fold increase in antibodies for six months or more of their first dose-a fourfold increase in those who received a second dose in two months. Dr Dan Baruch, head of the Beth Israel Decontamination Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, told CNN that protection should be strengthened if people get boosters later.
“If you wait longer and boost up in six months or so, you’re probably going to get better,” Baruch said.
Third, the company said that a study of the actual analysis of 390,000 people in the United States, using health insurance records as of July তাই so covering the Delta variant, showed that the one-shot J&J vaccine is 81% effective in preventing hospital admissions.
“The Johnson & Johnson single-shot Covid-1 vaccine showed the effectiveness of the vaccine against covid-1-related hospital admissions at a rate of %% for participants under 0 years of age and %% for those 60 years of age or older,” the agency said.
“Of the 390,517 vaccinated and 1,524,153 unvaccinated individuals, the effectiveness of the vaccine was 79% for covid-19 and 81% for covid-19 related hospital admissions,” the Jansen-led research team wrote in a study published online in a preprint.
“In high-delta-island-affected states, the rate of Covid-1 observed was higher in both groups than in the national group,” they added.
“In this state, the vaccine efficacy for COVID-19 observed was 79% overall and 78% in June and July, the month with the highest incidence of delta variants,” they added.
Baruch, who worked with Janssen to test the vaccine but who was not directly involved in the three studies, said those who received the Johnson & Johnson vaccine should be reassured by the data.
“All vaccines in the United States have shown strong and sustainable protection against serious diseases and hospitalizations,” he said.
“Ultimately, the job of a vaccine is to keep you from getting sick and from going to the hospital and keeping you alive and all the vaccines are doing that.”
Data on J&J vaccines came later than data from modern and Pfizer / biotech vaccines because J&J was approved about two months later. Johnson & Johnson said it would submit all of this data to the FDA for consideration of the possibility of adding a booster dose and possibly approving a two-dose method.
Janssen vaccines are made using different technologies from modern and Pfizer vaccines. They deliver messenger RNA or mRNA directly to the body wrapped in compounds called lipids. The J&J vaccine is made using an adenovirus, a common cold virus, it has been engineered so that it can enter cells, but then stop. It provides genetic guidance in that way.
There is room for different approaches, Baruch said.
“Single shots provide strong and durable protection over a significant period of time with minimal evidence of reduction,” Baruch said.
“I think the single dose vaccine is a reasonable alternative for people and for countries that want a simple and convenient vaccine that can be administered quickly,” he said.
“For exceptional protection, then a second shot can be given at any time between two months and eight months – and the better you wait.”
This is because the body develops different types of immunity, he said. Antibodies – proteins of the immune system that can either flag off the attacker or directly attack and neutralize – are produced quickly but can decay over time.
The body also makes cells called B cells and T cells and these contribute to long-term protection. Stimulating B-cells over time – when they become less active – shows that they will produce fresh antibodies more effectively, he said.
Barroch said the J&J vaccine may be less effective in countries outside the United States because it was tested in many countries when variants were prevalent that could avoid the protection provided by the vaccine.
The beta or B.1.351 variant is an example-it contains so-called escape mutations that help it hide from resistance. It was widely circulated in South Africa but has been challenged by Delta in the United States, which is not immune to resistance.
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