Monday, March 20, 2023

Vaccine-induced immune response to Omicron substantially diminishes over time

Although COVID-19 booster vaccination in adults elicits high levels of neutralizing antibodies against the omicron version of SARS-CoV-2, antibody levels drop significantly within 3 months, according to new clinical trial data. it happens. Findings, published today cell report medicine, a study sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), which is part of the National Institutes of Health. The trial was led by NIAID’s Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Consortium.

As part of a “mix and match” clinical trial, investigators administered COVID-19 booster vaccines to adults in the United States who had previously received a primary COVID-19 vaccination series under emergency use authorization. Some participants received the same vaccine as their primary series, and others received a different vaccine. The investigators evaluated immune responses over time. previously reported results The New England Journal of Medicine showed that all combinations of primary and booster vaccines resulted in increased antibody levels in recipients.

In the new analysis, the investigators report that nearly all vaccine combinations evaluated (see table) elicited high levels of neutralizing antibodies in the Omicron BA.1 sub-lineage. However, the group receiving Ad26.COV2.S as both the primary vaccine and boost had lower levels of antibodies against Omicron. In addition, the immune response to Omicron decreased significantly in all groups, with antibody levels reduced by 2.4- to 5.3-fold by the three-month post-boost. The Omicron sub-lineages BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/BA.5 were 1.5 and 2.5-fold less susceptible to neutralization, respectively, than the BA.1 sub-lineage, and 7.5 and 12.4-fold less sensitive relative to the parental . D614G strain. BA.5 is currently the major version in the US

The authors note that the findings are consistent with real-world reports showing protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection during the omicron wave in people who received the primary vaccine series and booster shots. Additionally, immune responses to oomicron sub-lineages show a reduced susceptibility to these rapidly emerging subtypes. The data can be used to inform decisions regarding recommendations for future vaccine schedules, including the need to promote variant vaccines.

NIAID grants supporting this research were UM1AI48372, UM1AI148373, UM1AI148450, UM1AI148452, UM1AI148573, UM1AI148574, UM1AI148575, UM1AI148576, UM1AI148684 and UM1AI148689. Contract 75N93019C00050 from the NIAID Collaborative Influenza Vaccine Innovation Center (CIVIC) also provided support.

Story Source:

material provided by NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Note: Content can be edited for style and length.

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