Saint Joseph. – The Cuba irregular migration From Cuba in the United States by sea, air and Havana to South America, Central America and Mexico, or by plane from island to Nicaragua and Mexican soil, shot in mid-2022: 18 rafters arrived last on June 2 and June 22 Co before Key West, Florida, and 38 were intercepted by US patrols and returnees on June 21.
Examples refer to Camarioca in 1965, Mariel in 1980, the Rafters crisis in 1994, and the 2015 and 2016 exodus, which marked significant phases of Cuba’s irregular migration from Cuba to the United States. From October 2021 to May 2022, Cuba’s largest migrant influx into the US was recorded since the victory of the Communist Revolution in 1959, and with Mexico as a springboard to US soil.
A cyclical trend in Cuba after 1959 was migratory waves that spurred migration from internal socioeconomic conditions along the island’s northern coast: the migration of over 5,000 Cubans through the port of Camárioca in 1965, the departure of more than 125,000 in 1980. In seven months through the port of Mariel and in 1994 the emigration of more than 32 thousand due to the crisis of the rafters.
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Quarter migratory avalanche It emerged in Central America and Mexico from November 2015 to mid-2016, with the displacement of some 10,000 Cubans and in Cuba’s first large-scale land migration since 1959. With ups and downs, the movement has continued unabated over the past six years.
25 Cubans join the drama of a visa-free migration of people from Cuba with the disappearance of two boats in Mexican waters off the Pacific 10 days ago.
An initial projection by the US Department of Homeland Security’s Office of Customs and Border Protection (CBP) in April 2022 estimated that the country would receive more than 155,000 Cubans in the fiscal year that would first end October 2021 through September 30. . , 2022.
With reports from October 1, 2021 to May 30 this year, CBP revealed that 140,602 Cubans had already entered the United States, an average of 17,575 per month, and crossed the 1980 crisis from the midwestern port of Mariel. have taken.
If this trend continues until the last day of September, this phenomenon will reach unprecedented figures at various points of 3 thousand 185 kilometers of the border between Mexico and the United States of America and will exceed the approach of about 155 thousand Cubans.
If the monthly average recorded in May continues, the figure will be closer to 200,000 in September, but the pace may slow due to migrant, police, military and judicial controls along the dangerous hemispherical route.
total will be more than any migrant event With Cubans, who repeatedly cited socio-economic and political motivations for leaving Cuba.
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The CBP forecast at the end of September 2022 would not mean that all of them would also be admitted to the US, as they could be returned to Mexico as the majority’s immediate country of origin.
According to CBP, this number will quadruple the total fiscal year from October 1, 2020 to September 30, 2021, and multiply by 12 from October 1, 2019 to September 30, 2020.
Contrary to that federal agency’s fiscal years data showed that, especially in terms of the “apprehension” of Cubans in the US at sea and land borders, mostly for deportation, this increased from 4,296 in 2007 to 3,351 in 2008. Turned out to be 910. In 2009, 712 in 2010, 606 in 2012 and 1,153 in 2015 went up to 702 in 2017 and 194 in 2018.
But that number steadily rose to 11,798 in 2019, with 11,645 at the US border with Mexico, according to CBP. The total for fiscal year 2020 was 9,907, of which 9,822 came from Mexico. Not everyone was deported or recruited.
Cuba has repeatedly rebuked the United States for encouraging disorderly, unsafe, and illegal migration to intensify the commercial and financial embargo imposed in 1962, which the Cuban Revolution blamed for its socioeconomic problems.
In consultation with this newspaper, the Cuban Embassy in Mexico yesterday confirmed a claim that Cuba raised with the United States in April of this year that Washington has complied with a commitment to grant 20,000 annual visas to Cuba since 2017. has failed to do so, since if approximately 100,000 pending visas are granted, irregular migration would be curtailed.
The report sent by the embassy said, “Cuban reiterates its concern about US government measures that encourage migration, prevent legal and orderly migration, and create socioeconomic conditions that encourage migration.” We do.”
He stressed that America’s “excessive strengthening of the blockade” results in “loss of life and the commission of crimes of migrant smuggling, immigration fraud and human trafficking”.
Cuba demanded that the United States stop “obstructing and infringing on the rights of Cubans to travel to third countries in the region” and insisted that the visa service in Havana be interrupted and the applicant should be “not allowed to immigrate”. There is no “justification” for “forcing”. Travel to Guyana for the US Embassy to process your application.
The International Organization for Migration (IOM), an organization affiliated with the United Nations (UN), stressed in a report released last Friday that deaths in various parts of the United States travel victim to Cuban migrants by sea, air or air. does. land.
“Many of the deaths recorded on these routes are from countries with high numbers of asylum seekers. At least 136 Venezuelans have died in transit in the past 18 months, in addition to 108 Cubans and 90 Haitians,” the IOM specified.
Although the region has been under attack from the coronavirus for more than 26 months, “an increasing number of people from Latin America and the Caribbean make dangerously irregular trips,” he said.
In the case of Cuba, they choose to travel by air from Cuba to Guyana (formerly a neighboring country with Venezuela that excludes them from visas), from where they travel by plane and travel to Brazil, Peru, Ecuador and Brazil. travel by land. Colombia, continuing to Panama by sea and land, and on land through the rest of Central America to Mexico and the Americas.
One limited option is to try to obtain a visa to enter Mexico by air and continue in the US, and another is to air travel from Cuba to Nicaragua and from there northwards by land.
Passing through the Darien Gap, a dense forest in eastern Panama and western Colombia, is most at risk for Cubans, Venezuelans, Haitians, Africans and Asians, who have been joined by Colombians and other citizens of the region since at least 2020 such as Ecuador. Chilean and Brazilian Haitian children were also detected.
One option that has already left shipwrecks and deaths is to travel by boat along the southern coast of Mexico in the Pacific Ocean from the states of Chiapas to Oaxaca and from Mexican territory to the United States.
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