Tuesday, September 27, 2022

Why COVID generated an increase in resistance to superbugs

Patients can acquire infections from resistant bacteria that have a 10-fold higher risk of mortality than heart attack (AP).
Patients can acquire infections from resistant bacteria that have a 10-fold higher risk of mortality than heart attack ( Associated Press).

public health problem antimicrobial resistance that they have superbacteria it was worrisome, but later COVID-19, it is even more so for the scientific community. is that hospital infection have increased At least 15% in the first year alone From EpidemicAccording to a new report from Centers for Disease Control (CDC) from United States.

The data for this increase is matched by events in Argentina, which There was a 30% increase in the number of resistant bacteria in hospitals during the first year of the pandemicas reported infobae non profit organization Research into Antibiotic Resistance (Invera)Which brings together experts in infection science and biochemistry.

Nosocomial infections have increased since 2020 (Getty Images)
Nosocomial infections have increased since 2020 (Getty Images)

every year, About 3 million people in the US are infected with germs such as bacteria and fungi. that they have developed Tolerance To Medicine Designed to kill them. These threats kill about 50,000 people, Often acquired In same health center designed to treat them. By 2050, some scientists predict that antibiotic resistance could cause more deaths than cancer.

Meanwhile, the problem of antibiotic-like antimicrobial resistance in Argentina has worsened with the pandemic. ,The problem means that patients can get infections from resistant bacteria that The risk of mortality is 10 times higher than that of a heart attack,warned in conversation with infobae infectious disease doctor francisco nasinovichDirector of Invera.

Corey DetweilerA professor of molecular, cellular and developmental biology at CU Boulder has spent his career trying to develop solutions to what some call The “shadow epidemic” of antimicrobial resistance.

Superbugs caught in the act of transferring an antibiotic resistance plasmid through them "pilus" Similar to a syringe, marked with arrows.  Professor Mark Schimbri)
Superbugs were caught in the act of transferring an antibiotic resistance plasmid via their syringe-like “pilus,” which are marked with arrows. Professor Mark Schimbri)

,Modern antibiotics, along with penicillin, were discovered in 1928, but did not begin to be manufactured in large quantities until World War II. For the treatment of soldiers in America. This showed its true potential: many people survived who would have died of infection from the wounds of war. since then they’ve had a wide impact, They have helped people survive basic things like childbirth or falling on the playground or undergoing minor surgery. Before antibiotics, people would regularly die from these things, and as they stopped working, such activities would become very risky., You may think more before replacing your hip. When your friend gives birth, you may worry that you will never see her alive again. We risk going back to a period 100 years ago when even a minor infection could mean death.”, described the scientist.

As the experts explain, “A superbug is a bacterium or fungus that is resistant to clinical antimicrobials. They are becoming more common. Right now, for example, the percentage of clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (which include things like Salmonella and E. coli) is about 35% that are known to be resistant. So if you go to a hospital and you get this kind of infection, you have a one in three chance of being treatable or poorly curable.”

Antibiotics were administered and more than usual was consumed due to lack of knowledge about coronavirus
Lack of knowledge about coronavirus leads to over-consumption and over-consumption of antibiotics

The expert indicated that much progress has been made, especially in Hospital-acquired infections, based on a better understanding of the problem and better guidelines on how to use antibiotics, “Between 2012 and 2017, for example, deaths from antimicrobial resistance declined by 18% overall and hospitalizations by about 30%. All that broke during COVID. ,

“We did not know how to treat COVID and understood that there was a lot of chaos in the medical system. People were using more antibiotics, often inappropriately. About 80% of COVID patients received antibiotics. People were given it prophylactically before they knew they had a bacterial lung infection. That doesn’t mean that none of the patients needed them. Some did. But the more you use antibiotics, the more likely you are to develop resistance. And that’s how you eventually get a superbug,” Detweiler said.

"Improper use of antibiotics over time has made bacteria resistant to many broad-spectrum antibiotics."Famous Pizza (iStock)
“Inappropriate use of antibiotics over time has made bacteria resistant to many broad-spectrum antibiotics,” notes Pizzi (iStock).

And I add: “When you take an antibiotic that you don’t need, you’re essentially putting pressure on other microbes in your body to get stronger. It can make you sick later or make someone in your household sick. You are also selecting resistant bacteria that you introduce into the water system and that can potentially spread antibiotic resistance. And then there’s also another selfish component, which is that antibiotics kill off the microbiota: the beneficial bacteria that we all have inside our nasal passages and our GI tracts that keep us healthy. This makes you more vulnerable to disease. ,

for infectious disease specialist Hugo’s PizzaThis is a problem of the antibiotic age. “due to improper use of antibiotics in a timely manner” Bacteria are resistant to many broad-spectrum antibiotics which were not used properly. In addition, there is self-medication and prescriptions by people who lack fitness”, Dr. Pizzi said. There was great destructive potential.”

To change this dangerous trend, experts agree
Experts agree that “we have to return to this idea of ​​administration in hospitals” to change this dangerous trend.

“During the early months of the pandemic in 2020, coronavirus patients were prescribed antibiotics. However, it was not appropriate to apply useful antibiotics to bacterial infections. This factor contributed to the increase in antimicrobial resistance,” he said. Ines Stanloni, who is part of Invera and heads the infection control committee of the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. Too, “There was an increase in nosocomial infections during the pandemic, which led to an increase in the consumption of antimicrobial drugs.”

despite the seriousness of the problem superbacteria in Argentina, Experts say much remains to be doneEach person has his own responsibility. People can help deal with the problem at home when they feel sick or when they go to doctors’ offices or hospitals. There are pending actions of health workers, health officials, veterinary and agriculture sectors and even legislators from the National Congress across the country.

Dr. Detweiler said that To change this alarming trend “we must go back to this idea of ​​management in hospitals”: Give antibiotics only when there is a clear need. We were doing the right thing. And then something terrible came along and screwed it up, and it showed that what we were doing was working fine. it’s a good thing. Second, we need to find and develop new classes of antibiotics. The last time a new class of antibiotics hit the market was in 1984. The fundamental problem is that compared to a cancer drug, they are not cost-effective to develop. You can go to the pharmacy and buy amoxicillin for $8. We need programs that reward academic and industry labs like ours for doing early research.”

,Antibiotics are tools that have evolved from scientific research and have contributed to increasing life expectancy along with vaccines and drinking water, But they are not magic medicines and you have to respect them. They should be administered only when used appropriately and well. In addition, another important recommendation is to have up-to-date vaccinations such as vaccinations that prevent pneumonia and flu, Dr. Nasinovich concluded.

read on:

Resistance to antibiotics was stressed due to indiscriminate use during the COVID-19 outbreak
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria already cause more deaths than HIV or malaria
Indiscriminate use of antibiotics: Health commission favors legislation to control it

Nation World News Desk
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